St Clements University Certificate/ Diploma / Advanced Diploma in Electrical Engineering

Course + Credit Outlines

 

YEAR 1

 

Certificate in Electrical Engineering

15 credits

 

 

SEMESTER (1)

Credits

EE101

DC Circuit Problems

1

EE102

Basic Electrical Fitting & Wiring

1

EE103

Basic Electrical Drafting

1

EE104

Electrical Equipments Safety Protection

2

EE105

Electrical Installation Design

1

EE106

Advanced Electrical Wiring

1

EE107

Electrical Equipments

1

EE108

Electrical Fault Finding

1

EE109

Electrical Control Circuits

1

EE110

Computer Applications

1

EE111

Electromagnetism & Basic Electrical Machines

2

EE112

Alternating Current Principle

2

 

 

15 Credits

 

Diploma in Electrical Engineering

30 credits

Credits

 

SEMESTER (2)

 

EE113

Electrical Fundamental

2

EE114

Electrical Power Principle

1

EE115

Basic Analogue & Digital Electronics

2

EE116

Process Control System

3

EE117

Solar Electrical System

1

EE118

Electrical Energy Supply System

3

EE119

Electrical Risk Assessment

1

EE120

Electrical Contracting & Specification

1

EE121

Electronics Power Control Device

1

 

 

30 Credits

 

 

 

 

 

Advanced Diploma in Electrical Engineering

60 credits

Credits

 

SEMESTER (1)

 

EE201

Engineering Mathematics

1

EE202

Electrical Circuits

1

EE203

Three Phase Power Circuits

1

EE204

Engineering Physics

1

EE205

Electrical Power System

2

EE206

AC Machines

2

EE207

DC Machine

1

EE208

Operational Amplifiers

2

EE209

Analogue Electronics

1

 

 

SEMESTER (2)

 

EE301

Advanced Electrical Drafting

1

EE302

Advanced Engineering Mathematics

2

EE303

Transmission Line

2

EE304

Power System Protection

2

EE305

Power Transformer

2

EE306

Electro-mechanical Control

2

EE307

Energy Efficient Building Design

2

EE308

Sustainability

1

EE309

Project Management

2

EE310

Engineering Officer Competency Report

2

 

 

30 Credits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EE101

DC Circuit Problems

 

This unit covers determining correct operation of single source d.c. series, parallel and series-parallel circuits and providing solutions as they apply to various electrotechnology work functions. It encompasses working safely, problem solving procedures, including the use of voltage, current and resistance measuring devices, providing solutions derived from measurements and calculations to predictable problems in single and multiple path circuits.

 

Evidence shall show an understanding of electrical fundamentals and direct current multiple path circuits to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Basic electrical concepts encompassing:

 electrotechnology industry

 static and current electricity

 production of electricity by renewable and non renewable energy sources

transportation of electricity from the source to the load via the transmission and distribution systems

 utilisation of electricity by the various loads

basic calculations involving quantity of electricity, velocity and speed with relationship to the generation and transportation of electricity.

 

T2 Basic electrical circuit encompassing:

symbols used to represent an electrical energy source, a load, a switch and a circuit protection device in a circuit diagram

 purpose of each component in the circuit

effects of an open-circuit, a closed-circuit and a short-circuit

multiple and sub-multiple units

 

T3 Ohm’s Law encompassing:

 basic d.c. single path circuit.

 voltage and currents levels in a basic d.c. single path circuit.

effects of an open-circuit, a closed-circuit and a short-circuit on a basic d.c. single path relationship between voltage and current from measured values in a simple circuit

determining voltage, current and resistance in a circuit given any two of these quantities

 graphical relationships of voltage, current and resistance

relationship between voltage, current and resistance

 

T4 Electrical power encompassing:

 relationship between force, power, work and energy

 power dissipated in circuit from voltage, current and resistance values

 power ratings of devices

measurement electrical power in a d.c. circuit

 effects of power rating of various resistors

 

T5 Effects of electrical current encompassing:

physiological effects of current and the fundamental principles (listed in AS/NZS 3000) for protection against the this effect

basic principles by which electric current can result in the production of heat; the production of magnetic fields; a chemical reaction

 typical uses of the effects of current

 mechanisms by which metals corrode

fundamental principles (listed in AS/NZS3000) for protection against the damaging effects of current

 

T6 EMF sources energy sources and conversion electrical energy encompassing:

basic principles of producing a emf from the interaction of a moving conductor in a magnetic field.

basic principles of producing an emf from the heating of one junction of a thermocouple.

basic principles of producing a emf by the application of sun light falling on the surface of photovoltaic cells

 basic principles of generating a emf when a mechanical force is applied to a crystal

 

 

(piezo electric effect)

 principles of producing a electrical current from primary, secondary and fuel cells

 input, output, efficiency or losses of electrical systems and machines

 effect of losses in electrical wiring and machines

 principle of conservation of energy

 

T7 Resistors encompassing:

 features of fixed and variable resistor types and typical applications

 identification of fixed and variable resistors

various types of fixed resistors used in the Electro technology Industry. e.g. wire-wound, carbon film, tapped resistors.

various types of variable resistors used in the Electro technology Industry e.g. adjustable resistors: potentiometer and rheostat; light dependent resistor (LDR); voltage dependent resistor (VDR) and temperature dependent resistor (NTC, PTC).

characteristics of temperature, voltage and light dependent resistors and typical applications of each

 power ratings of a resistor.

 power loss (heat) occurring in a conductor.

resistance of a colour coded resistor from colour code tables and confirm the value by measurement.

measurement of resistance of a range of variable’ resistors under varying conditions of light, voltage, temperature conditions.

 specifying a resistor for a particular application.

 

T8 Series circuits encompassing:

circuit diagram of a single-source d.c. ‘series’ circuit.

Identification of the major components of a ‘series’ circuit: power supply; loads; connecting leads and switch

 applications where ‘series’ circuits are used in the Electro technology industry.

characteristics of a ‘series’ circuit - connection of loads, current path, voltage drops, power dissipation and affects of an open circuit in a ‘series’ circuit.

the voltage, current, resistances or power dissipated from measured or given values of any two of these quantities

relationship between voltage drops and resistance in a simple voltage divider network.

setting up and connecting a single-source series dc circuit

measurement of resistance, voltage and current values in a single source series circuit

effect of an open-circuit on a series connected circuit

 

T9 Parallel circuits encompassing:

schematic diagram of a single-source d.c. ‘parallel’ circuit.

 major components of a ‘parallel’ circuit (power supply, loads, connecting leads and

 

 

· applications where ‘parallel’ circuits are used in the Electrotechnology industry.

characteristics of a ‘parallel’ circuit. (load connection, current paths, voltage drops, power dissipation, affects of an open circuit in a ‘parallel’ circuit).

relationship between currents entering a junction and currents leaving a junction

relationship between branch currents and resistances in a two branch current divider network.

 calculation of the total resistance of a ‘parallel’ circuit.

 calculation of the total current of a ‘parallel’ circuit.

Calculation of the total voltage and the individual voltage drops of a ‘parallel’ circuit.

setting up and connecting a single-source d.c. parallel circuit

resistance, voltage and current measurements in a single-source parallel circuit

voltage, current, resistance or power dissipated from measured values of any of these quantities

 output current and voltage levels of connecting cells in parallel.

 

T10 Series/parallel circuits encompassing:

schematic diagram of a single-source d.c. ‘series/parallel’ circuit.

major components of a ‘series/parallel’ circuit (power supply, loads, connecting leads and switch)

applications where ‘series/parallel’ circuits are used in the Electrotechnology industry.

characteristics of a ‘series/parallel’ circuit. (load connection, current paths, voltage drops, power dissipation, affects of an open circuit in a ‘series/parallel’ circuit).

 relationship between voltages, currents and resistances in a bridge network.

 calculation of the total resistance of a ‘series/parallel’ circuit.

calculation of the total current of a ‘series/parallel’ circuit.

calculation of the total voltage and the individual voltage drops of a ‘series/parallel’ circuit.

setting up and connecting a single-source d.c. series/ parallel circuit

resistance, voltage and current measurements in a single-source d.c. series / parallel circuit

the voltage, current, resistances or power dissipated from measured values of any two of these quantities

 

T11 Factors affecting resistance encompassing:

four factors that affect the resistance of a conductor (type of material, length, cross-sectional area and temperature)

affect the change in the type of material (resistivity) has on the resistance of a conductor.

 affect the change in ‘length’ has on the resistance of a conductor.

affect the change in ‘cross-sectional area’ has on the resistance of a conductor.

 

effects of temperature change on the resistance of various conducting materials

· effects of resistance on the current-carrying capacity and voltage drop in cables.

calculation of the resistance of a conductor from factors such as conductor length, cross-sectional area, resistivity and changes in temperature

using digital and analogue ohmmeter to measure the change in resistance of different types of conductive materials (copper, aluminium, nichrome, tungsten) when those materials undergo a change in type of material length, cross-sectional area and temperature.

 

T12 Effects of meters in a circuit encompassing:

selecting an appropriate meter in terms of units to be measured, range, loading effect and accuracy for a given application.

measuring resistance using direct, volt-ammeter and bridge methods.

instruments used in the field to measure voltage, current, resistance and insulation resistance and the typical circumstances in which they are used.

hazards involved in using electrical instruments and the safety control measures that should be taken.

 operating characteristics of analogue and digital meters.

correct techniques to read the scale of an analogue meters and how to reduce the ‘parallax’ error.

types of voltmeters used in the Electrotechnology industry – bench type, clamp meter, Multimeter, etc.

purpose and characteristics (internal resistance, range, loading effect and accuracy) of a voltmeter.

types of voltage indicator testers. e.g. LED, neon, solenoid, volt-stick, series tester, etc. and explain the purpose of each voltage indicator tester.

 operation of various voltage indicator testers.

 advantages and disadvantages of each voltage indicator tester.

various types of ammeters used in the Electrotechnology industry – bench, clamp meter, multimeter, etc.

purpose of an ammeter and the correct connection (series) of an ammeter into a circuit.

reasons why the internal resistance of an ammeter must be extremely low and the dangers and consequences of connecting an ammeter in parallel and/or wrong polarity.

selecting an appropriate meter in terms of units to be measured, range, loading effect and accuracy for a given application

connecting an analogue/digital voltmeter into a circuit ensuring the polarities are correct and take various voltage readings.

 loading effect of various voltmeters when measuring voltage across various loads.

 using voltage indicator testers to detect the presence of various voltage levels.

connecting analogue/digital ammeter into a circuit ensuring the polarities are correct and take various current readings.

T13 Resistance measurement encompassing:

Identification of instruments used in the field to measure resistance (including insulation resistance) and the typical circumstances in which they are used.

 the purpose of an Insulation Resistance (IR) Tester.

the parts and functions of various analogue and digital IR Tester (selector range switch, zero ohms adjustment, battery check function, scale and connecting leads).

reasons why the supply must be isolated prior to using the IR tester.

 where and why the continuity test would be used in an electrical installation.

where and why the insulation resistance test would be used in an electrical installation.

the voltage ranges of an IR tester and where each range may be used. e.g. 250 V d.c, 500 V d.c and 1000 V d.c

AS/NZS3000 Wiring Rules requirements – continuity test and insulation resistance (IR) test.

 purpose of regular IR tester calibration.

the correct methods of storing the IR tester after use

 carry out a calibration check on a IR Tester

 measurement of low values of resistance using an IR tester continuity functions.

measurement of high values of resistance using an IR tester insulation resistance function.

volt-ammeter (short shunt and long shunt) methods of measuring resistance.

calculation of resistance values using voltmeter and ammeter reading (long and short shunt connections)

measurement of resistance using volt-ammeter methods

 

T14 Capacitors and Capacitance encompassing:

basic construction of standard capacitor, highlighting the: plates, dielectric and connecting leads

 different types of dielectric material and each dielectric’s relative permittivity.

identification of various types of capacitors commonly used in the Electrotechnology industry (fixed value capacitors -stacked plate, rolled, electrolytic, ceramic, mica and Variable value capacitors – tuning and trimmer)

circuit symbol of various types of capacitors: standard; variable, trimmer and polarised

terms: Capacitance (C), Electric charge (Q) and Energy (W)

 unit of: Capacitance (Farad), Electric charge (Coulomb) and Energy (Joule)

factors affecting capacitance (the effective area of the plates, the distance between the plates and the type of dielectric) and explain how these factors are present in all circuits to some extent.

 how a capacitor is charged in a d.c. circuit.

behaviour of a series d.c. circuit containing resistance and capacitance components. - charge and discharge curves

 

 

the term ‘Time Constant’ and its relationship to the charging and discharging of a capacitor.

calculation of quantities from given information: Capacitance (Q = VC); Energy (W =½CV2); Voltage (V = Q/C)

calculation one time constant as well as the time taken to fully charge and discharge a given capacitor. (τ = RC)

connection of a series d.c. circuit containing capacitance and resistor to determine the time constant of the circuit

 

T15 Capacitors in Series and Parallel encompassing:

hazards involved in working with capacitance effects and the safety control measures that should be taken.

 safe handling and the correct methods of discharging various size capacitors

dangers of a charged capacitor and the consequences of discharging a capacitor through a person

factors which determine the capacitance of a capacitor and explain how these factors are present in all circuits to some extent.

effects of capacitors connected in parallel by calculating their equivalent capacitance.

effects on the total capacitance of capacitors connected in series by calculating their equivalent capacitance.

Connecting capacitors in series and/or parallel configurations to achieve various capacitance values.

 common faults in capacitors.

 testing of capacitors to determine serviceability.

application of capacitors in the Electrotechnology industry.

 

EE102

Basic Electrical Fitting & Wiring

 

This unit covers fixing, securing and mounting techniques as apply in the various electrotechnology work functions. It encompasses the safe use of hand and portable power tools, safe lifting techniques, safe use of ladders and elevated platforms and the selection and safe application of fixing devices and supporting accessories/equipment.

 

KS01-EE105A Fixing and support devices/techniques

Evidence shall show an understanding of accessories and support and fixing device and methods and their use to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1. Device for securing and mounting electrical/electronic/instrumentation/refrigeration/ air-conditioning/telecommunications accessories for supporting, fixing and protecting wiring/cabling/piping and functional accessories to hollow walls encompassing:

 types and safe application of devices for hollow wall fixing and support

methods/techniques used to fix/support to wood, hollow wall, masonry blocks, plasterboard, panelling

types and safe application of fixing devices used in the electrotechnology industry for wood and hollow wall structures (wood screws, coach bolts, self-tappers, self

 

drilling, metal thread, hollow wall anchors, behind plaster brackets, stud brackets, plasterboard devices, toggle devices)

 types of tools used for hollow wall fixing and supporting.

 using various fixing methods to fix/support to hollow walls.

 

T2. Device for securing and mounting electrical/electronic/instrumentation/refrigeration/ air-conditioning/telecommunications accessories for supporting, fixing and protecting wiring/cabling/piping and functional accessories to solid walls encompassing:

types and safe application of devices used for solid wall fixing and support

 methods/techniques used in to fix to masonry and concrete structures

fixing devices used in the electrotechnology industry for solid wall structures (wall-plugs, expanding concrete fixing devices, gas powered fixing tools, powder actuated fixing tools, loxins, dynabolts, chemical devices)

 regulatory requirements for use of powder fixing tools.

 hand and power tools used in fixing and supporting accessories

 using various fixing methods to fix/support to solid walls

 

T3. Device for securing and mounting electrical/electronic/instrumentation/refrigeration/ air-conditioning/telecommunications accessories for supporting, fixing and protecting wiring/cabling/piping and functional accessories to metal fixing encompassing:

accessories that may be fixed to metal (saddle clips, conduits, brackets, switches)

 techniques for fixing to metal

fixing devices: coach bolts, self-tappers, metal thread bolts, hollow wall anchors, rivets

fixing tools - spanners, screwdrivers, power screw drivers, pop riveters, files, reamers

 OH&S issues related to drilling, cutting, eye protection, metal filings, swarf, noise

 Using power drills, drill bits, change drill speeds.

Install a fixing device and accessory capable of supporting up to 20 kg on the metal plate.

 

T4. Securing and mounting electrical/electronic/instrumentation/refrigeration/ air-conditioning/telecommunications accessories for supporting, fixing and protecting wiring/cabling/piping and functional accessories using fixing adhesives and tapes encompassing:

types and safe application of using adhesives and tapes as fixing devices (load limits of different commercial products)

 accessories that may be fixed using adhesives and tapes

 techniques for the application of adhesives and tapes

tools used to apply and cut adhesives and tapes

hazards and safety measures when working with adhesives and chemical fixing devices (fumes, cutting, eye protection, physical contact, hand protection, ingestion)

 

 

EE103

Basic Electrical Drafting

 

This unit covers the use of drawings, diagrams, cable schedules, standards, codes and specifications as they apply to the various electrotechnology work functions. It encompasses the rudiments for communicating with schematic, wiring and mechanical diagrams and equipment and cable/connection schedules, manuals, site and architectural drawings and plans showing the location of services, apparatus, plant and machinery and understanding the use and format of compliance standards and job specifications.

 

KS01-EE107A Drawings, diagrams and schedules

Evidence shall show an understanding of drawings, diagrams and schedules used in electrotechnology work to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Architectural drawings encompassing:

 site plans, floor plans detailed drawings and standard drawings

architectural floor plan to determine the power and lighting or communications / audio/ video layouts required in a domestic installation

site plan to locate the service point, consumers mains, communication services, main switchboard, distribution boards and/or builders supplies.

standard drawing scales to determine the actual lengths represented by dimensions on an architectural drawing.

reading and interpretation of floor plans to determine the location of the electrical/ communication/audio accessories and appliances.

Australian standard symbols used on floor plans to show the location of the accessories

 

and appliances as detailed in an electrical schedule.

 

T2 Electrical drawings encompassing:

 types of electrical drawings: block, circuit, wiring and ladder diagrams

purpose and application of block, circuit, wiring diagrams and ladder diagrams

 Australian standard symbols used to represent components on electrical diagrams.

 conventions used in and the features of circuit diagrams

 converting a circuit diagram to a wiring diagram

identification of cable type, origin and route from a cable schedule.

 developing a cable schedule for a given installation.

 

T3 Circuit diagrams encompassing:

 purpose of circuit diagrams in the electrotechnology industry

 conventions used in and the features of circuit diagrams

 sketching basic circuit diagrams

 common symbols used in circuit diagram (Australian Drawing Standard AS/NZS 1102)

 developing switching charts to identify the terminals of various types of switches

 connecting equipment using circuit diagrams.

 

T4 Wiring diagrams encompassing:

 purpose of wiring diagrams in the electrotechnology industry

 conventions used in and the features of wiring diagrams

 sketching basic wiring diagrams

 common symbols used in wiring diagram (Australian Drawing Standard AS/NZS 1102)

connecting equipment using wiring diagrams.

 

T5 Building construction drawings and diagrams encompassing:

 building types: timber frame, brick veneer, double brick and metal frame.

identification of different types of: footings, floors, external walls, roofs, interior walls

 typical cable routes through buildings, structures and premises

 sequence of each constructional stage for brick, brick veneer and timber cottages

identification of the stages at which the electrical/communications - first and second fixing occurs in the constructional sequence

 areas of cooperation between electrical/communications and other building trades

 

EE104

Electrical Equipments Safety Protection

 

This unit covers the arrangement and termination of circuits, control and protection devices and systems for electrical installations operating at voltages up to 1,000 V a.c. or 1,500 V d.c. It encompass knowledge and application of schemes for protection of persons and property, correct functioning, ensuring compatibility with the supply, arranging installation into circuits and selecting and arranging switchgear/controlgear and protective devices to meet compliance requirements and documenting arrangement decisions

 

KS01-EG063A Electrical installations — arrangement, control and protection

Evidence shall show an understanding of circuit arrangements, control and protection of electrical installations that comply with the Wiring Rules and Service Rules to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Safety principles to which electrical systems in building and premises shall comply.

Safety principles are given in Part1 (Section 1) of the Wiring Rules AS/NZS 3000 with deemed-to-comply requirements given in Sections 2 to 8.

Compliant methods for providing protection - include those for providing protection against direct and indirect contact; thermal effects; unwanted voltages; overcurrent; fault currents; overload; overvoltage; injury from mechanical movement.

Requirements for installation design and selection of equipment - includes compliant protection arrangements; correct functioning; compatibility with supply; estimation of maximum demands; voltage drop considerations; arrangement of circuits and the like

 

T2 Circuit and control arrangements encompassing:

 reason for dividing electrical installations into circuits

factors that shall be considered in determining the number and type of circuits required for an installation.

daily and seasonal demand for lighting power, heating and other loads in a given installation.

 number and types of circuits required for a particular installation.

 diagrams/schedules of circuits for given installations.

 application and arrangements of SELV and PELV circuits

 application and arrangement of an isolated supply

 

T3 Hazards and risks in an electrical installation encompassing:

effects on the human body of various levels of a.c. and d.c. current and duration of current flow for various current paths.

risk of ignition of flammable materials due the thermal effects of current or electric

 

arcs in normal service of an electrical installation.

 risk of injury from mechanical movement of electrically actuated equipment.

 Protection against direct contact (basic protection)

 acceptable methods

use of extra-low voltage

 

T4 Protection against indirect contact encompassing:

 indirect contact with live parts of an electrical installation may occur.

methods and devices that comply with the Wiring Rules for providing protection against indirect contact.

components of the 'automatic disconnection of supply' method of protection against indirect contact.

 the terms ‘touch voltage’ and ‘touch current’.

the current path when a short circuit fault to exposed conductive parts of an appliance occurs.

protection against indirect contact is by the use of Class II equipment and by electrical separation.

 additional protection by use of Residual Current Devices (RCDs)

protection against indirect contact by use of extra-low voltage and electrical separation.

 Protection requirements for damp situations.

 

T5 Earthing encompassing:

the terms: earthed, earthed situation, earth electrode, equipotential bonding, multiple earthed neutral (MEN) system, protective earth-neutral (PEN) conductor, main earthing conductor, protective earthing (PE) conductor, functional earthing, MEN link.

selection of minimum size-earthing conductor for a range of active conductor sizes and materials.

 parts of an earthing system and the purpose of each.

 typical arrangement for a MEN earthing system.

arrangements of protective earthing conductors that comply with the Wiring Rules.

 requirements for equipotential bonding in a range of installation situations.

 Installation of a MEN earthing system for a single phase installation

 

T6 Protection against overload and short circuit current encompassing:

 overload current or fault currents in an electrical installation.

equivalent circuit of an earth fault-loop

level of fault current possible at a given point in an installation from the fault-loop impedance and data from the electricity distributor.

methods and devices that comply with the Wiring Rules AS/NZS 3000 for providing protection against the damaging effects of overload and fault current

requirements for co-ordination between protective devices and conductors

 

requirements for co-ordination of protection devices for discrimination and back-up protection.

 

T7 Devices for automatic disconnection of supply encompassing:

 operating principles of thermal/magnet circuit breakers.

 operating principles of common types of fuses.

operating principles of residual current devices (RCD).

time/current curves tripping characteristics of various types of circuit breakers that comply with the requirements of the Wiring Rules.

time/current curves fusing characteristics of various types of fuses that comply with the requirements of the Wiring Rules.

time/current curves tripping characteristics of various types of RCDs that comply with the requirements of the Wiring Rules.

 factors in a fault loop that will affect the impedance of the circuit.

maximum impedance of an earth fault-loop to ensure operating of a protection device.

 selecting a fuse for fault current limiting protection.

drawing switchboard wiring arrangements of 2-pole RCDs, 4-pole RCDs, combination RCD/MCBs.

 

T8 Protection against over voltage and under voltage encompassing:

 causes of over voltage and how this may affect the electrical system.

 methods for protection against over voltage.

 causes of under voltage and how this may affect the electrical system.

 methods for protection against under voltage.

 

T9 Control of an electrical installation and circuits encompassing:

 switch types, current and voltage ratings and IP rating and where these apply.

switching requirements for isolation, emergency, mechanical maintenance and functional control.

control arrangement for complete installations with and without safety services and an alternative supply.

 

T10 Switchboards / distribution boards encompassing:

 Purpose, types and applications.

Physical and circuit arrangements for whole current and CT metering.

Physical and circuit arrangements of main switches, circuit protection devices, fault-current limiters and metering equipment and other distributor equipment.

compliance requirements (includes location and access, arc fault protection, identification, construction suitability, equipment marking, wiring, fire protection and arc-fault protection).

 

EE105

Electrical Installation Design

 

This unit covers selecting wiring systems and cables for electrical installations operating at voltages up to 1,000V a.c. or 1,500 V d.c. It encompass knowledge and application of wiring systems and cable types, selecting wiring system compatible with the installation conditions, selecting cables that comply with required current-carrying capacity and voltage drop and earth fault-loop impedance limitations, coordination between protective devices and conductors and documenting selection decisions

 

KS01-EG107A Electrical installation — cable selection and co-ordination

Evidence shall show an understanding of selecting cables and ensuring co-ordination between protection device and conductors in electrical installations that comply with the Wiring Rules, Selection of cables standards and Service Rules to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Performance requirements - design and safety encompassing:

harmful effects against which the design of an electrical installation must provide protection.

 performance standards of a correctly functioning electrical installation.

 supply characteristics that shall be considered when designing an electrical installation.

acceptable methods for determining the maximum demand in consumer's mains and sub-mains.

 AS/NZS 3000 requirements limiting voltage drop in an installation.

reason for dividing electrical installations into circuits and the factors that shall determine their number and type.

typical external factors that may damage an electrical installation and that shall be considered in the installation design.

methods for protecting persons and livestock against direct and indirect contact with conductive parts and the typical application of each.

acceptable methods of protection against the risks of ignition of flammable materials and injury by burns from the thermal effects of current, in normal service.

likely sources of unwanted voltages and the methods for dealing with this potential hazard.

acceptable methods for protecting persons and livestock against injury and property against damage from the effects of over current.

 requirement for protection against fault current.

requirement for protection against the harmful effects of faults between live parts of circuits supplied at different voltages.

need for protection against injury from mechanical movement and how this may be achieved.

features of 'fire rated construction' and how the integrity of the fire rating can be maintained in relation to electrical installation.

 

T2 Final subcircuit arrangements encompassing:

 factors that shall be considered in determining the number and type of circuits required

 

for an installation.

daily and seasonal demand for lighting, power, heating and other loads in a given installation.

 number and types of circuits required or a particular installation.

 current requirements for given final subcircuits.

 layout/schedule of circuits for given installations.

 

T3 Factors affecting the suitability of wiring systems encompassing:

wiring systems typically used with various construction methods and particular environments.

installation conditions that may affect the current-carrying capacity of cables.

external influences that may affect the current-carrying capacity and/or may cause damage to the wiring system.

AS/NZS 3000 requirements for selecting wiring systems for a range of circuits, installation conditions and construction methods into which the wiring system is to be installed. Note: Wiring systems include cable enclosures, underground wiring, aerial wiring, catenary support, emergency systems, busbar trunking and earth sheath return.

 

T4 Maximum demand on consumer’s mains/submains encompassing:

acceptable methods for determining the maximum demand on an installation’s consumer’s mains and submains.

maximum demand for the consumer's mains for given installations up to 400 A per phase.

 maximum demand for given submains.

 

T5 Cable selection based on current carrying capacity requirements encompassing:

installation conditions for a range of wiring systems and applications.

 external influences that require the use of a derating factor.

 AS/NZS 3000 requirements for coordination of cables and protection devices.

AS/NZS 3008 used to select conductor size based on the maximum current requirement for a given installation condition including any applicable derating factors.

 

T6 Cable selection based on voltage drop requirements encompassing:

 AS/NZS 3000 requirements for maximum voltage drop in an installation.

relevant tables in AS/NZS 3008 for unit values of voltage drop.

 calculation of the expected voltage drop in a given circuit.

selecting cables to satisfy voltage drop requirements in addition to current carrying capacity requirements.

 

T7 Cable selection based on fault loop impedance requirements encompassing:

 AS/NZS 3000 requirements for maximum fault loop impedance in an installation.

 relevant tables in AS/NZS 3008 to determine cable impedances.

calculation of the expected fault loop impedance for a given circuit arrangement.

 selecting cables to satisfy fault loop impedance requirements in addition to current

 

carrying capacity requirements and voltage drop requirements.

 

T8 Selecting protection devices encompassing:

acceptable methods of protection against indirect contact.

AS/NZS 3000 requirements for selecting methods and devices to protect against indirect contact for a range of installation types and conditions.

coordination between conductors and protection devices to ensures the protection of cables from over heating due to over current.

 possible injuries to persons and livestock from hazards due to a short circuit.

AS/NZS 3000 requirements for selecting devices to protect against overload current for a range of circuits and loads.

AS/NZS 3000 requirements for selecting devices to protect against short-circuit current for a range of installation conditions.

 

T9 Selecting devices for isolation and switching encompassing:

requirements for the provision of the isolation of every circuit in an electrical installation.

 need for protection against mechanical movement of electrically activated equipment.

AS/NZS 3000 requirements for selecting devices for isolation and switching for a range of installations and conditions.

 

T10 Switchboards encompassing:

 AS/NZS 3000 and local supply authority requirements for switchboards.

 tariff structures for the supply of electricity.

 equipment installed at the main switchboards with capacities up to 400 A per phase.

layout of a main switchboard for an installation supplied with single phase single tariff whole current metering.

layout of a main switchboard for an installation supplied with single phase multiple tariff whole current metering.

layout of a main switchboard for an installation supplied with multiphase single tariff whole current metering.

layout of a main switchboard for an installation supplied with multiphase multiple tariff whole current metering.

layout of a main switchboard for a multiple tenancy installation with whole current metering.

layout of a main switchboard, including metering, for an installation supplied with three phase CT metering.

local supply authority requirements for connection of an electrical installation to the electrical supply system

 

EE106

Advanced Electrical Wiring

 

This unit covers the installation in building and premises of wiring enclosures, cable support systems, cables and accessories and designed to operate at voltages up to 1,000 V a.c. or 1,500 V d.c. It encompasses working safely and to installation standards, routing cables to specified locations, terminating cables and connecting wiring at accessories and completing the necessary installation documentation.

 

KS01-EG103A Installation of wiring systems

Evidence shall show an understanding of the installation of wiring systems that comply with standards to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Standards, codes and requirements applicable to the installation of wiring systems encompassing:

 Cables and methods of mechanical protection and support

 Protection against and from other services.

 Prohibited cable locations

Building codes affecting the installation of cables in buildings, structures and premises (limitation on penetration of structural elements, maintenance of fire protection integrity, and wiring above suspected ceilings)

Issues affecting electrical installations in heritage buildings and premises (limitation on penetration of structural and finished elements, accessing cable routes, types and colour of exposed accessories).

 

T2 Use of other installation standards called up by the Wiring Rules for special situations encompassing:

 standards that apply to Electromedical treatment areas.

additional requirements for construction and demolition sites.

 Relocatable installations and their site supply

 additional requirements for caravan park.

 additional requirements for marinas and pleasure craft at low voltage.

 additional requirements for shows and carnivals.

 

T3 Hazardous areas encompassing:

Conditions that apply in an areas that require them to be classified as a ‘Hazardous area’.

 Responsibility for classifying a hazardous area

Awareness of standards called up by the Wiring Rules for selection of equipment and installations in Hazardous areas. (AS/NZS 3000 requirements for hazardous areas).

 

T4 Requirement for the installation of cables and accessories in damp situations and ELV installations encompassing:

restricted zones around baths, showers, fixed water containers, pools, sauna heaters and fountains/water features for given installations.

 selecting equipment suitable for installation in given damp situations.

voltage range that defines extra-low voltage.

'Separated extra-low voltage (SELV) system' and a 'Protected extra-low voltage (PELV) system".

AS/NZS 3000 requirements for selecting extra-low voltage systems and devices for a range of installations and conditions.

 

T5 Aerial cabling encompassing:

 Describe the types of aerial cabling.

State the AS/NZS 3000 and local supply authority requirements for aerial cabling.

 Termination of aerial cables in accordance with AS/NZS 3000 and local requirements.

 installation of consumers mains for connection via overhead consumers terminals in

 

ccordance with AS/NZS 3000 and local requirements.

 Testing of installed cables compliance with Australian Standards

 

T6 Underground cabling encompassing:

 Describe permissible underground cabling systems.

 Identify other underground services.

State the AS/NZS 3000 and local supply authority requirements for underground cabling.

 List the advantages and disadvantages of underground wiring systems

selection of underground consumers mains in accordance with AS/NZS 3000 and local requirements

 

T7 Techniques for installing cables and wiring systems encompassing:

 Typical cable routes through buildings, structures and premises.

 Application of wiring accessories

Drawing-in, placing and fixing of cables

 Cable and conductor terminations

 Maintaining fire rating integrity.

Inspecting and testing installed and terminated cables to ensure they comply with continuity and insulation resistance and are safe to connect to the supply.

 

EE107

Electrical Equipments

 

This unit covers the installation of appliances protection devices, switchgear, controlgear, switchboards, and accessories designed to operate at voltages up to 1,000 V a.c. or 1,500 V d.c. It encompasses working safely and to installation standards, matching appliances and accessories with that specified, making required circuit connections and completing the necessary installation documentation.

 

vidence shall show an understanding of the installation of appliances (current-using equipment) and accessories to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Installation standards, codes and requirements applicable to installing electrical equipment encompassing.

 Protection against thermal effects

Connection of electrical equipment (appliances, switchgear and accessories include switchgear and controlgear, switchboards, socket-outlets, lighting equipment and accessories, lamps and luminaires, smoke and fire detectors, cooking appliances, appliances producing hot water or steam, room heaters, electric heating cables for floors and ceilings, space heating, duct heaters, electricity converters, motors, transformers, capacitors, and batteries).

Required and permitted locations current-using equipment and accessories

 Control, switching and over current and RCD protection

 

T2 Terminal configuration for connection of phase, neutral and protective earthing conductors for each type of equipment.

T3 Building codes affecting the installation of current-using equipment and accessories in buildings, structures and premises encompassing:

maintenance of fire protection integrity, requirements for emergency services (safety services) and the like.

 

T4 Issues affecting electrical installations in heritage buildings and premises encompassing:

 limitation on types and colour of exposed accessories.

 

EE108

Electrical Fault Finding

 

This unit covers trouble-shooting and repairing faults in electrical apparatus and interconnecting circuits and equipment operating at voltages up to 1,000 V a.c. or 1,500 V d.c. It encompasses working safely, reading circuit diagrams, sketching diagrams from traced wiring, logically applying fault finding procedures, conducting repairs and completing the necessary service documentation.

 

KS01-EG108A Electrical circuit and equipment faults and fault finding techniques

Evidence shall show an understanding of electrical circuit and equipment faults and fault finding techniques to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Troubleshooting concepts encompassing:

need to understand the correct operation of a circuit or equipment, switching and control circuit arrangements.

common faults with circuits and equipment including operator faults, incorrect connections, open-circuits, short-circuits, device faults (mechanical), supply faults.

typical faults symptoms and their causes: operation of circuit protective device, appliance does not operate, single phase motor does not develop enough torque to drive the load, three phase motor does not develop enough torque to drive the load, motor overload trips

factors to consider in clarifying the nature of a fault: initial fault report, confirmation of

 

symptoms of the fault, comparison of symptoms with normal operation

effect to cause reasoning — assumptions of possible causes

methods for testing assumptions: visual inspection, component isolation, test equipment, sectional testing, split-half tests

repairing the fault and the steps needed to ensure fault doesn’t re-occur

dealing with intermittent faults (typical causes of intermittent faults are vibration, shock, changes in temperature and electromagnetic interference).

 final testing and re commissioning

 

T2 Troubleshooting water heater and appliance circuits/equipment encompassing:

 circuit diagrams of common single phase and three phase hot water systems

single phase and three phase element resistance values (determined from measurement and calculation from power and voltage ratings)

 testing single and three phase elements for correct insulation resistance and continuity

 element replacement techniques

operation of thermostats, thermal cut-outs and pressure relief valves, flow switches and checking sacrificial anodes

 locating faults in common single and three phase hot water systems

 repairing faulty water heating systems

 

T3 Troubleshooting electrical appliance circuits/equipment encompassing:

 circuit diagrams of common single phase and three phase appliances

 methods to determine the cause of an RCD operation

 identification of appliances that is causing an RCD to trip

testing single and three phase appliances for correct insulation resistance and continuity

 operation of appliances controls

 locating faults in common single and three phase appliances

 repairing faulty appliances

 

T4 Troubleshooting lighting circuits encompassing:

circuit and wiring diagrams of common lighting circuits including single light controlled by a single switch, multiple lights controlled by a single switch, two and three way switching using the loop at the light method and the loop at the switch method.

causes of wiring faults from supplied symptoms and circuit and/or wiring diagrams

causes of faults in ELV lighting devices, include transformer (iron core or electronic), voltage drop, heat, over-voltage, poor connections, incompatible dimmers

diagrams of a basic fluorescent light circuit including lamp, ballast and starter

 locating faults in fluorescent light circuits

operation of a range of lighting control including passive infra-red (PIR), dimmers, photo electric or day-light switches and time clocks

 locating faults in lighting control circuits

 

T5 Troubleshooting single phase motor and control circuits encompassing:

 

circuit diagrams of split phase, capacitor start, capacitor start capacitor run, universal and shaded pole single phase motors

causes of single phase motor faults from supplied symptoms and circuit diagrams

causes of electrical faults in single phase motors, include open and partially open circuit winding, short and partially short circuit winding, open circuit rotor, burnt out winding, coil shorted to frame.

reasons for a thermal overload trip and how often they are to be reset before investigating a cause

internal mechanical faults and their consequences, include bearings, fans, bent shaft, locked rotor, blocked air vents, centrifugal switches, environmental factors

faults on driven loads and couplings and their consequences, include slipping belts, poorly aligned coupling (shims), vibration, loads bearing failing, load stalling.

 locating faults in single phase motors and their controls

 

T6 Troubleshooting three phase induction motor encompassing:

 circuit diagrams of three phase induction motors

 causes of three phase motor faults from supplied symptoms and circuit diagrams

causes of electrical faults in three phase motors, include open and partially open circuit phase winding, short and partially short circuit phase winding, open circuit rotor, burnt out phase winding, coil shorted to frame.

reasons for a thermal overload trip and how often they are to be reset before investigating a cause

internal mechanical faults and their consequences, include bearings, fans, bent shaft, locked rotor, blocked air vents, environmental factors.

faults on driven loads and couplings and their consequences, include slipping belts, poorly aligned coupling (shims), vibration, loads bearing failing, load stalling.

 locating faults in three phase induction motors and their controls

 

T7 Troubleshooting electrical installations encompassing:

circuit diagrams, wiring diagrams, cable schedules and specifications of electrical installations

causes of electrical installation faults from supplied symptoms and circuit diagrams include open and partially open circuit wiring, short and partially short circuit wiring, low insulation resistance, incorrect polarity, transposition of conductors, RCD tripping.

locating faults in electrical installations

 repairing faulty electrical installation circuits components and wiring.

 

EE109

Electrical Control Circuits

 

This unit covers developing, connecting and functionally testing electrical power and control circuits that perform specific control functions. It encompasses working safely; developing schematic/ladder diagrams and converting them to wiring diagrams; selecting and connecting contactors and control devices to perform a specific function.

 

KS01-EG109A Electrical control devices and circuits

Evidence shall show an understanding of electrical control devices and circuits to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Basic relay circuits encompassing:

Identification of given circuit diagrams (schematic) symbols and explain the operation of the components represented

labelling wires and terminal (numbering systems)

control relay - operating principles, basic contact configurations and identification and common applications

push button - switching configurations and common applications

selecting pushbuttons/pilot lamps from manufacturer’s catalogues for specific applications

development of simple stop-start relay circuit that incorporates pilot lights and latching circuit.

 connection and testing of control circuits

T2 Relay circuits and drawing conventions encompassing:

 circuit diagram drawing conventions

 selecting relays from manufacturers’ catalogue for specified applications

circuit development of electrical control circuit in accordance with a written description (specification) and list the sequence of operation of the circuit

connecting simple electrical control circuit from circuit diagrams

 applying safe working practices when testing an electrical control circuit

 

T3 Remote STOP-START control and electrical interlocking encompassing:

operation of local and remote start-stop control of relays

operation of an electrically interlocked relay circuit

development of a relay circuit incorporating local and remote start and stop buttons and electrical interlocking.

connecting electrical circuits with local and remote start-stop control and with electrical interlocking.

 applying circuit checking and testing techniques to an electrical control circuit.

 

T4 Time delay relays encompassing:

timers - operating principles, basic contact configurations and identification and common applications

selecting timers for specified functions from manufactures’ catalogues

development of timer controlled circuits from a written description and list the sequence of circuit operation

 connecting a timer controlled circuit using a circuit diagram as a guide.

timer circuit checking and testing procedures.

 

T5 Circuits using contactors encompassing:

contactors - operating principles, basic contact configurations and identification and common applications

thermal overloads - operating principles, basic contact configurations and identification and common applications

 circuit diagram symbols

 circuit development using a contactor

 using contactors for motor control.

 compliance requirements for devices for isolating circuits.

 

T6 Jogging and interlocking encompassing:

purpose and application of jogging control of motors

 operation of motor control using start, stop and jog buttons

 purpose and application of electrical/mechanical interlocking

developing a multiple motor starting circuit from a description of the circuit operation including jog and interlock functions.

 selecting circuit components using manufacturers’ catalogues for appropriate duty

 

ratings

connecting and testing a multiple motor starting circuit which incorporates start, stop and jog control.

 

T7 Control devices encompassing:

common control devices used in automatic control circuits: limit switches, proximity switches, photoelectric cells, pressure switches, float switches, light sensors and temperature sensors

 basic operating principles of common control devices

advantages and disadvantages of common control devices

 applications for common control devices

 selecting control devices using manufacturers’ catalogues for specified applications

 connection of control devices into control circuits

 

T8 Programmable relays encompassing:

programmable relays - advantages over electromagnetic relay circuit control.

 typical applications of programmable relays.

 block diagram representation and basic operating principles

 input and output parameters, listing, connections and output types.

connecting input and output devices to a programmable relay using a diagram

basic programming of ladder circuits consisting of inputs, outputs i.e. stop-start circuit

using the monitoring facility of the programmable relay to verify each ladder circuit operation.

programming timers and using the monitoring facility of the programmable relay to check the values of the timer

 external devices

 implications of programming normally closed field devices

 conversion of control circuits

installation of programmable control relays

 common faults and their symptoms

 

T9 Three-phase induction motor starters encompassing:

 reasons for limiting the starting current of large motors.

requirements of the wiring rules (AS/NZS 3000) and the local supply authority service rules, with regard to starting and control of induction motors.

 DOL starter operating principles, applications and circuits

 electronic (soft) starter operating principles, applications and circuits

connecting a DOL motor starter and testing the operation of the power and control circuits

 installation of DOL and soft starters

 

T10 Three-phase induction motor starters- reduced voltage encompassing:

star-delta starter operating principles and circuits

 

primary resistance starter operating principles and circuits

· auto-transformer starter operating principles and circuits

 secondary resistance starter operating principles and circuits

 common applications for each starter type

 comparison of motor starters basic characteristics

selecting the most suitable motor starter for a given situation

 connecting motor starter power and control circuits for correct operation

 measuring starting current and torque of selected motor starters

 installation of reduced voltage starters

 

T11 Three-phase induction motor reversal and braking encompassing:

 reversing operating principles and control circuits

 plug braking operating principles and circuits

 dynamic braking operating principles and circuits

 regenerative braking operating principles and circuits

 eddy current brakes operating principles and circuits

 mechanical brakes operating principles and circuits

 comparison of the difference braking methods used.

 typical applications for each braking method.

connecting a circuit with a braking feature to operate a three-phase motor.

installation of motor braking control circuits

 

T12 Three-phase induction motor speed control encompassing:

 pole changing operating principles and circuits

 variable frequency drives operating principles and circuits

slip-ring motors operating principles and circuits

installation of motor speed controllers.

 

EE110

Computer Applications

 

This unit covers the basic use of personal computers application relevant to a work function. It encompasses switching the computer on, applying user preferences, selecting basic applications, entering and retrieving information and printing files.

 

KS01-ED101A Basic Computer Applications

Evidence shall show an understanding of computer use basics to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Starting up

T2 Selecting application

T3 Entering information

T4 Saving

T5 Printing

EE111

Electromagnetism & Basic Electrical Machines

 

This unit covers determining correct operation of electromagnetic devices and related circuits and providing solutions as they apply to electrical installations and equipment. It encompasses working safely, power circuit problems solving processes, including the use of voltage, current and resistance measuring devices, providing solutions derived from measurements and calculations to predictable problems in electromagnetic devices and related circuits

 

KS01-EG101A Electromagnetic devices and circuits

Evidence shall show an understanding of electromagnetic devices and circuits to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Magnetism encompassing:

magnetic field pattern of bar and horse-shoe magnets.

 magnets attraction and repulsion when brought in contact with each other.

common magnetic and non-magnetic materials and groupings (diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials).

 principle of magnetic screening (shielding) and its applications.

 practical applications of magnets

 construction, operation and applications of reed switches.

 

T2 Electromagnetism encompassing:

 conventions representing direction of current flow in a conductor.

 magnetic field pattern around a single conductor and two adjacent conductors

 

carrying current.

Using the “right hand rule” to determine the direction of magnetic field around a current carrying conductor.

 direction of force between adjacent current carrying conductors.

effect of current, length and distance apart on the force between conductors (including forces on bus bars during fault conditions).

magnetic field around an electromagnet.

Using the “right hand rule” to determine the direction of magnetic field around a current carrying coil.

magnetomotive force (m.m.f.) and its relationship to the number of turns in a coil and the current flowing in the coil.

practical applications of electromagnets.

 

T3 Magnetic circuits encompassing:

 magnetic characteristic curve for various materials and identify the various regions.

 Identify the various conditions of a magnetic material from its Hysteresis loop.

factors which determine losses in magnetic material.

 methods used to reduce electrical losses in a magnetic circuit.

 magnetic flux (definition, unit and symbol).

 reluctance as the opposition to the establishment of magnetic flux.

 permeability (definition, symbol and unit).

difference for magnetic and non-magnetic materials in regards to reluctance and permeability.

 calculation of m.m.f., flux or reluctance given any two values.

 flux density (definition, symbol, unit and calculation).

magnetising force (definition, symbol, unit and calculation).

 common magnetic circuit types.

 effect of an air gap in a magnetic circuit.

 terms “magnetic leakage” and “magnetic fringing”.

 

T4 Electromagnetic induction encompassing:

principle of electromagnetic induction (Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction).

applying “Fleming’s right hand rule” to a current a carrying conductor under the influence of a magnetic field.

calculation of induced e.m.f. in a conductor given the conductor length, flux density and velocity of the conductor.

calculation of induced e.m.f. in a coil given the number of turns in a coil and the rate of change of flux.

calculation of force on a conductor given the flux density of the magnetic field, length of the conductor and the current being carried by the conductor.

 Lenz’s law

 applications of electromagnetic induction

T5 Inductance encompassing:

 construction of an inductor, including a bifilar winding inductor.

 Australian Standard circuit diagram symbol for the four types of inductor.

effect of physical parameters on the inductance of an inductor.

 common types of inductor cores.

 applications of the different types of inductors.

 definition of terms self induction, inductance and mutual inductance.

 calculation of value of self induced e.m.f. in a coil.

mutual induction occurs between two coils.

graphical relationship between load voltage, current and self induced e.m.f. in a single d.c. circuit having inductance.

 practical applications for the effects of self and mutual induction.

 undesirable effects of self and mutual induction.

definition of term “time constant” and draw the characteristic curve as applied to a series circuit containing an inductor and a resistor. (LR circuit)Calculation of value of the time constant for an LR circuit given the values of the components.

time constants required for the current in an LR circuit to reach its final value.

determining of instantaneous values of voltage and current in an LR circuit using a universal time constant chart.

 

T6 Measurement Instruments encompassing:

moving coil, moving iron, dynamometer meter movements and clamp testers.

practical applications for moving coil, moving iron and dynamometer meter movements.

Calculation of resistance of shunts and multipliers to extend the range of ammeters and voltmeters.

factors to be considered in selecting meters for a particular application.

 safety category of meters and their associated applications.

 steps and procedures for the safe use, care and storage of electrical instruments.

 

T7 Magnetic devices encompassing:

construction, operation and applications of relays.

 construction, operation and applications of contactors.

 magnetic methods used to extinguish the arc between opening contacts.

 construction, operation and applications of Hall Effect devices.

operation and applications of magnetostriction equipment.

 construction, operation and application of magnetic sensing devices.

 

T8 Machine principles encompassing:

 basic operating principle of a generator.

 applying Fleming’s right hand rule for generators.

 basic operating principle of a motor.

 

applying Fleming’s left hand rule for motors.

· calculation of force and torque developed by a motor.

 

T9 Rotating machine construction, testing and maintenance encompassing:

 components of a d.c. machine.

difference between a generator and a motor in terms of energy conversion.

 nameplate of a machine.

using electrical equipment to make electrical measurements and comparison of readings with nameplate ratings.

 Identification of faults in a machine from electrical measurements.

care and maintenance processes for rotating machines

 safety risks associated with using rotating machinery.

 

T10 Generators encompassing:

 basic operation of a d.c generator.

 calculation of generated and terminal voltage of a d.c. shunt generator

prime movers, energy sources and energy flow used to generate electricity.

 types of d.c. generators and their applications.

 methods of excitation used for d.c generators.

 equivalent circuit for a d.c. generator.

 importance of residual magnetism for a self excited generator.

open circuit characteristics of d.c. generators.

 load characteristics of a d.c generator.

 reversing the polarity of a d.c. generator

Connect and test a d.c generator on no-load and load

 Identify safety risks associated with using generators.

 

T11 Motors encompassing:

operation of a motor and its energy flow.

 effect of back e.m.f. in d.c. motors

torque as the product of the force on the conductors and the radius of the armature/rotor.

 types of d.c. motors and their applications.

 circuit diagrams for the types of d.c. motors.

equivalent circuit for the types of d.c. motors.

 calculation of power output of a motor.

 characteristics of the different types of d.c. motors.

connection and testing a d.c. shunt motor on no-load and load

 reversing the direction of rotation of a d.c. motor.

 safety risks associated with using motors (include risks of series d.c. motors).

 

T12 Machine efficiency encompassing:

 losses that occur in a d.c machine.

 

methods used to determine the losses in a d.c. machine.

· calculation of losses and efficiency of a d.c machine.

 efficiency characteristic of a d.c. machine and the conditions for maximum efficiency.

 application of Minimum Energy Performance standards (MEPS).

 methods used to maintain high efficiency.

 

EE112

Alternating Current Principle

 

This unit covers ascertaining correct operation of single and three phase a.c. circuits and solving circuit problems as they apply to servicing, fault finding, installation and compliance work functions. It encompasses safe working practices, multiphase circuit arrangements, issues related to protection, power factor and MEN systems and solutions to circuit problems derived from calculated and measured parameters.

 

KS01-EG102A Alternating current power circuits

Evidence shall show an understanding of alternating currents power circuits to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Alternating Current Quantities encompassing:

 sine, cosine and tangent ratios of a right angle triangle

 Pythagoras Theorem to a right angle triangle.

 use of the CRO to measure d.c. and a.c. voltage levels

sinusoidal voltage generated by a single turn coil rotated in a uniform magnetic fields

 

 

terms 'period', 'maximum value', 'peak-to-peak value', 'instantaneous value', 'average value', 'root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value', in relation to a sinusoidal waveform.

calculation of the instantaneous value of induced voltage of a generated sinusoidal waveform.

measurement of instantaneous, peak, peak-to-peak values and the period of a sinusoidal waveform.

calculation of root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value and frequency of a sinusoidal waveform from values of peak voltage and period.

 

T2 Phasors Diagrams encompassing:

 purpose of phasor diagrams

'in-phase', 'out-of-phase', 'phase angle'' lead' and 'lag'.

phase angle between two or more alternating quantities from a given sinusoidal waveform diagram.

convention for representing voltage, current and the reference quantity in a phasor diagram.

drawing phasor diagrams to show the relationship between two or more a.c. values of voltage and/or current.

determination of phase relationship between two or more sinusoidal waveforms from a given diagram and measurements.

 

T3 Single Element a.c. circuits encompassing:

setting up and connect a single-source resistive a.c. circuit and take voltage and current measurements to determine the resistance

determining the voltage, current resistances from measure of given values of any tow of these qualities.

 relationship between voltage drops and current in resistive a.c. circuit

 applications of resistive a.c. circuits

 defining ‘inductive reactance’.

calculation of inductive reactance for a given inductor and the relationship between inductive reactance and frequency.

applying Ohm’s Law to determine voltage, current of inductive reactance in a purely inductive a.c. circuit given any two to these quantities.

 applications of inductive a.c circuits.

 calculation of capacitive reactance

applying Ohm’s Law to determine voltage, current or capacitive reactance in a purely capacitive a.c circuit given any two of the quantities.

 applications of capacitive a.c circuits

 

T4 RC and RL Series a.c. circuits encompassing:

impedance and impedance triangle.

determining the impedance, current and voltages for a series RC circuit given the resistance, capacitance and supply voltage.

 drawing and labelling the impedance triangle for a series RC circuit

 

drawing phasor diagrams for a series RC circuit

· AS/NZS 3000 requirements for the installation of capacitors.

· examples of capacitive components in power circuits and systems and the effect on the phase relationship between voltage and current.

determining the impedance, current and voltages for a series RL circuit given the resistance, inductance and supply voltage.

 drawing and labelling the impedance triangle for a series RL circuit

 drawing the equivalent circuit of a practical inductor

 Draw phasor diagrams for a series RL circuit.

examples of inductive components in power circuits and systems and describe their effect on the phase relationship between voltage and current

 

T5 RLC Series a.c. circuits encompassing:

measuring component voltages in a series RLC circuit and using a phasor diagram to determine the supply voltage and phase angle between circuit voltage and circuit current.

determining the impedance, current and voltages for a series RLC circuit given resistance, inductance, capacitance and supply voltage.

drawing and labelling the impedance triangle for a series RLC circuit.

 calculation of total impedance for a series RLC circuit.

calculation of voltage drop for cables using the values for reactance and a.c. resistance from AS/NZS 3008.

comparison of current limiting characteristics of inductors and resistors.

 practical examples of RLC series circuits

 

T6 Parallel a.c. Circuits encompassing:

determining the branch currents of a parallel circuit that contain RL, RC or LC in two branches.

using a phasor diagram to determine the total circuit current and phase angle in parallel RL, RC or LC circuits.

 determining the total circuit impedance of parallel RL, RC or LC circuits.

measuring the branch currents in a parallel RLC circuit and use a phasor diagram to determine the total current and phase angle between circuit voltage and circuit current.

determining the branch impedances, branch currents and phase angles voltages for a parallel RLC circuit given resistance, inductance, capacitance and supply voltage.

calculation of impedance for a parallel RLC circuit.

 practical examples of parallel circuits.

 

T7 Power in an a.c. circuit encompassing:

difference between true power, apparent power and reactive power and the units in which these quantities are measured.

drawing the power triangle to show the relationships between true power, apparent power and reactive power

 defining the term "power factor" and phase angle.

 

methods used to measure single phase power, energy and demand.

 

T8 Power Factor Improvement encompassing:

 effects of low power factor.

requirements for power factor improvement.

 methods used to improve low power factor of an installation.

local supply authority and AS/NZS 3000 wiring rules requirements regarding the power factor of an installation and power factor improvement equipment.

methods used to measure single phase power factor.

using manufacturers catalogues to select power factor equipment for a particular installation

 

T9 Harmonics and Resonance Effect in a.c. Systems encompassing:

term "harmonic" in relation to the sinusoidal waveform of an a.c. power system.

 sources in a.c. systems that produce harmonics.

problems that may arise in a.c. circuits as a result of harmonics and how these are overcome.

 methods and test equipment used to test for harmonics

methods used to reduce harmonics in a.c. power system

 conditions in a series a.c. circuit that produce resonance.

 dangers of series resonance circuits

 conditions in a parallel a.c. circuit that produce resonance.

 dangers of parallel resonance circuits

AS/NZS3000 and the local supply authority requirements concerning harmonics and resonance effect in a.c. power systems.

 

T10 Three Phase Systems encompassing:

 features of a multiphase system.

 comparison of voltages generated by single and multiphase alternators.

reasons for the adoption of three phases for power systems.

 how three phases is generated in a single alternator.

Calculation of r.m.s. value of voltage generated in each phase given the maximum value.

relationship between the phase voltages generated in a three phase alternator and the conventions for identifying each.

 term "phase sequence" (also, referred to as "phase rotation").

 determining the phase sequence of a three phase supply

 

T11 Three phase star-connections encompassing:

connecting a three phase star-connection load.

phase relationship between line and phase voltages and line and phase currents of a star-connected system.

 determining the r.m.s. value of line and phase voltage given any one of these quantities.

 

determining the r.m.s. value of line and phase current given any one of these quantities.

 terms "balanced load" and "unbalanced load".

 effect of a reversed phase winding of a star connected alternator.

 example of balanced and unbalanced loads in typical power systems.

 

T12 Three phase four wire systems encompassing:

purpose of the neutral conductor in a three phase four wire systems.

determining the effects of an high impedance in the neutral conductor of a three phase four wire system supplying an unbalanced load where MEN earthing is employed.

determining the value and phase relationship of neutral current in an unbalanced three phase four wire systems given line currents and power factors.

 AS/NZS 3000 requirements regarding neutral conductors.

AS/NZS 3008.1.1 method for determining voltage drop in unbalanced three phase circuits

 

T13 Three phase delta-connections and Interconnected systems encompassing:

 connecting three phase delta loads.

phase relationship between line and phase voltages and line and phase currents of a delta-connected system.

determining the r.m.s. value of line and phase voltage given any one of these quantities.

 determining the r.m.s. value of line and phase current given any one of these quantities.

 limitations and uses of open delta connections

effect of a reversed phase winding of a delta connected transformer

 example of loads in typical power systems.

drawing the typical combinations of three phase interconnected systems using star-connections and a delta-connection.

relationship between line and phase voltages and line and phase currents in the typical interconnected systems using star-connections and delta-connections.

 

T14 Energy and power requirements of a.c. systems encompassing:

purposes for measuring power, energy, power factor and maximum demand of a.c. power systems and loads.

difference between true power, apparent power and reactive power and the units in which these quantities are measured in a three phase system.

drawing the power triangle to show the relationships between true power, apparent power and reactive power in a three phase system.

 methods used to measure three phase power , energy, power factor and demand.

 determining how the power factor of a three phase installation can be improved.

using manufacturers catalogues to select measurement equipment for a particular installation

 

T15 Fault Loop Impedance encompassing:

 term fault loop impedance of a a.c. power system

 determining fault loop impedance using resistance and reactance values from AS/NZS

 

3008.1.1

 measuring fault loop impedance of typical circuits

procedures for testing fault loop impedance

 

EE113

Electrical Fundamental

 

This unit covers the application of calculations required to solve electrotechnical engineering problems. It encompasses working safely, applying problem solving techniques, using a range of mathematical processes and techniques to providing solutions to electrotechnical problems, and justifying such solutions.

Note.

Typical electrotechnical problems are those encountered in meeting requirements in meeting performance requirements and compliance standards, revising systems operating parameters and dealing with system malfunctions

This unit covers ascertaining correct operation of single and three phase machines and solving machine problems as they apply to servicing, fault finding, installation and compliance work functions. It encompasses safe working practices, machine connections circuit arrangements, issues related to machine operation, characteristics and protection and solutions to machine problems derived from calculated and measured parameters.

 

 Evidence shall show an understanding of electrotechnical principles to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Resistance encompassing:

relationship between voltage, current and resistance and the power dissipated in a circuit

value of voltage, current and resistance in a circuit given any two of these quantities

the factors of length, cross-sectional area and material effect the resistance of conductors

 effects of temperature change on the resistance of various conducting materials

features of fixed and variable resistor types and typical applications

characteristics of temperature, voltage and light dependent resistors and typical applications of each

 

T2 Series circuits encompassing:

measurement of resistance, voltage and current values in a single source series circuit

the voltage, current, resistances or power dissipated from measured or given values of any two of these quantities

 relationship between the voltage drops around a circuit and the applied voltage

 

T3 Parallel circuits encompassing:

measurement of resistance, voltage and current values in a single-source parallel circuit

the voltage, current, resistance or power dissipated from measured or given values of any of these quantities

relationship between currents entering a junction and currents leaving a junction

 

T4 Series/parallel circuits encompassing:

measurement of resistance, voltage and current values in a single-source series / parallel circuit

the voltage, current, resistances or power dissipated from measured or given values of any two of these quantities

 

T5 Measurement of electrical quantities encompassing:

 operating characteristics of analogue and digital meters

selecting an appropriate meter in terms of units to be measured, range, loading effect and accuracy for a given application

T6 Capacitance/Capacitors encompassing:

 definition of capacitance and explain how a capacitor is charged

 the units by which capacitance is measured

 relationship between capacitance, voltage and charge

behaviour of a series d.c. circuit containing resistance and capacitance components

factors which determine the capacitance of a capacitor and explain how these factors are present in all circuits to some extent

 

T7 Magnetism and electromagnetism encompassing:

 field patterns around given permanent magnets

magnetic field patterns around a straight current carrying conductor and a solenoid

 direction in which the magnetic field around a straight current carrying conductor

 

T8 Electromagnetic induction encompassing:

 factors required to induce an emf in a conductor

 

T9 Sinusoidal alternating voltage and current encompassing:

how a sinusoidal voltage is generated in a single turn coil rotated in a uniform magnetic field

definition of the terms ‘period’, ‘maximum value’, ‘peak-to-peak value’, ‘instantaneous value’, ‘average value’ and ‘root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value’ in relation to a sinusoidal waveform

 instantaneous value of induced voltage of a generated sinusoidal waveform

root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value and frequency of a sinusoidal waveform from values of peak voltage and period

 

T10 Test equipment encompassing:

 operating principles of a CRO including block diagram of functional areas

set up, calibration and use of an oscilloscope to measure d.c and a.c. voltages and frequency

measurement of the instantaneous, peak, peak-to-peak values and the period of sinusoidal and other common waveforms provided by a signal generator

 calibration and limitation of CRO probes

 use of signal generator as a voltage source

 

T11 Phase relationships in a.c. circuits encompassing:

phasor representation of graphical waveforms

‘in-phase’, ‘out-of-phase’, ‘phase angle’, ‘lead’, and ‘lag’

convention for representing voltage, current and the reference quantity in a phasor diagram

phasor diagrams to show the relationship between two or more a.c. values of voltage and/or current

 

T12 Single-source resistive a.c. circuits of various frequencies encompassing:

 

single-source a.c. circuit and taking resistance, voltage and current measurements

voltage, current, resistances or power dissipated from measured or given values of any two of these quantities

 

T13 Inductance in a.c. circuits encompassing:

concept of inductance, self-inductance and mutual inductance. (in terms of storage of magnetic energy)

factors affecting inductance and how the unit of inductance is derived

 value of induced voltage in a given circuit

 how a series d.c. circuit containing resistance and inductance behaves

 ‘inductive reactance’

inductive reactance of a given inductor and show the relationship between inductive reactance and frequency

applying Ohm’s law to determine voltage, current or inductive reactance in a purely inductive a.c. circuit given any two of these quantities

examples of inductive components in circuits and systems and describe their effect on the phase relationship between voltage and current

 

T14 Capacitance in a.c. circuits encompassing:

capacitive reactance of a given capacitor and the relationship between capacitive reactance and frequency

applying Ohm’s law to determine voltage, current or capacitive reactance in a purely capacitive a.c. circuit given any two of these quantities

examples of capacitive components in electronic circuits and systems and describe their effect on the phase relationship between voltage and current

 

T15 Impedance in a.c. circuits encompassing:

definition of ‘impedance’

impedance of series, parallel and series-parallel circuits and draw diagrams showing the relationship between resistive, inductive and capacitive components

single-source a.c. circuit with resistance, voltage and current measurements

determination of the voltage, current or impedance from measured or given values of any two of these quantities

using phasor diagrams to solve problems and show the relationship between voltages and currents in a.c. circuits

 

 

EE114

Electrical Power Principle

 

KS01-EG006A Single and three-phase transformers

Evidence shall show an understanding of single and three phase transformers to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Transformer construction encompassing:

types of lamination style and core construction used in single-phase, three phase, double wound, auto transformers and instrument transformers.

 identification of different winding styles/types used in transformers.

 methods used to insulate low and high voltage transformers.

 construction of transformer tanks for distribution transformers.

transformer auxiliary equipment. (Bushings, surge-diverters, tap-changers, hot oil & winding indicators, breather, Buchholz relay and conservator).

 function of transformer auxiliary equipment.

 types of information stated on transformer nameplates.

 application of transformers.

performing basic insulation resistance, continuity and winding identification tests.

 

T2 Transformer operation encompassing:

 principles of mutual induction of a transformer.

 factors that determine the induced voltage in a transformer winding.

determining the value of a transformers secondary voltage and current given one winding’s electrical details and turns ratio.

identification of voltage and current components of a phasor diagram for a transformer on no-load.

principles of power transferred from the primary to secondary when a load is connected using a phasor diagram neglecting impedance drops.

 selecting transformers for specific application/s.

safety features specified in AS/NZS3000 with respect to transformers and isolating transformers.

 

T3 Transformer losses, efficiency and cooling encompassing:

 power losses which occur in a transformer.

 tests which allow the power losses of a transformer to be determine.

 determination of transformer losses and efficiency using test results.

 

relationship between transformer cooling and rating.

 methods used for natural and forced cooling of transformers.

 properties of transformer oil.

 tests conducted on transformer oil.

 

T4 Transformer voltage regulation and percent impedance encompassing:

voltage regulation as applicable to a transformer.

 reasons for voltage variation in the output of a transformer.

determine the voltage regulation of a transformer from voltage and percentage impedance values.

 percentage impedance as applied to transformers.

determine the percent impedance by using test results.

 determine percent impedance of a transformer by calculation.

 

T5 Parallel operation of transformers and transformer auxiliary equipment encompassing:

determine polarity markings for an unidentified single phase double wound transformer.

 need for parallel operation of transformers.

conditions/restrictions required before two transformers can be connected in parallel.

connecting transformers in parallel to supply a single load (loading on transformers operating in parallel).

 the consequences/effect of an incorrect connection.

 

T6 Auto-transformers and instrument transformers encompassing:

identification of auto-transformers, voltage transformers and current transformers from their winding diagrams.

determining voltage and current in the windings of an auto-transformer by calculation.

advantages and disadvantages of an auto-transformer.

 AS/NZS3000 requirements with respect to transformers.

 construction of voltage transformers.

 ratings of voltage transformers.

construction of current transformers.

 ratings of current transformers.

 precautionary measures taken to connect and disconnect instrument transformers.

 connection diagrams for instrument transformers.

applications for auto-transformers and instrument transformers.

 

EE115

Basic Analogue & Digital Electronics

 

Part 1 Analogue

 

This competency standard unit covers developing engineering solutions to solve problems with analogue electronics. It encompasses working safely, apply extensive knowledge of analogue electronics circuit and device operation and their application, gathering and analysing data, applying problem solving techniques, developing and documenting solutions and alternatives.

Note.

Typical analogue electronic problems are those encountered in meeting performance requirements and compliance standards, revising analogue electronics operating parameters and dealing with analogue electronic malfunctions

 

KS01-EH145A Analogue electronic circuits and systems

Evidence shall show an understanding of analogue electronic circuits, applying safe working practices and relevant Standards, Codes and Regulations to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

Single-stage analogue electronics

T1. Understanding of differential amplifiers using discrete components (transistors) of suitable characteristics to meet system objective

differential gain, common mode rejection ratio and the required CMRR

 variable gain input stage

 

T2. Operational amplifier circuits

 use of d.c. offset

operation of single-supply inverting and non-inverting amplifiers employing DC offset bias at the input and blocking capacitors

 operation of a high input resistance unity gain

areas of use for single-supply amplifiers.

T3. Comparator circuits (open loop, limited swing and hysteresis) using operational amplifiers:

ideal op-amp comparator

typical uses of the comparator.

 comparators with limited (i) negative swing and (ii) both positive negative swing

hysteresis comparator with positive resistor divider feedback and calculate the input switching voltages.

desirable properties of an operational amplifier for use as comparator and the characteristics of comparator op amps.

 

T4. Amplifiers with given piecewise linear transfer characteristics

T5. Operation and building precision of half-wave and fullwave rectifiers

precision two-diode half-wave and full-wave rectifier

 typical applications of precision rectifiers.

 

T6. Oscillators

 Operation of oscillators

 Purpose of oscillators

 Conditions for sustained oscillation

 Operation of phase shift oscillators

 The operation and characteristics of a Colpitts oscillator

Conditions that cause instability in amplifier circuits

 

Advanced power amplifiers

 Analysing the performance of power amplifiers

 Minimum power, voltage and current rating of an output transistor.

 Aspects of heat transfer related to heat sinking.

Common forms of distortion encountered in power amplifiers. (eg. Total harmonic distortion)

 Techniques for overcoming common forms of distortion.

 

T9. (is the number correct?)Classes of power amplifiers and indicate typical maximum efficiencies for each class

conduction, angle, output power and efficiency of a power amp.

 typical and/or maximum efficiencies of each class of power Amp.

 d.c and/or a.c load line,

 output power and efficiency of a large signal amplifier

 

T10. Operation of each class and type of power amplifier circuit

 load line operation.

Class A – direct, RC, transformer coupled. Class B – Complementary symmetry, drivers, single supply/duel supply. Class C and Class D.

 measure the characteristics of a fully integrated operational power Amplifiers.

T11. Active filters

frequency response of low-pass, high-pass, low-Q band-pass, high-Q bandpass, notch and all-pass filters and define pass-band, stop-band and rate of roll-off.

main features in the amplitude and phase plots of Butterworth, Chebyshev, Cauer-Elliptic and Bessel filter responses.

 pros and cons of active and passive filters.

non-unity gain Sallen-Key low-pass filter.

Types of active filters available in IC form - Variable filter, Switched Capacitor Filters and digital (sampled data) filters.

Low-Q (i.e. cascade of lowpass and high-pass) and/or narrow bandpass filters

 

Part 2 Digital

 

This unit covers determining correct operation of digital sub-systems. It encompasses working safely, problem solving procedures, including the use of voltage, current and resistance measuring devices, providing solutions derived from measurements and calculations to predictable problems in digital components circuits.

 

KS01-EH112A Digital sub-system

Evidence shall show an understanding of digital sub-system troubleshooting, applying safe working practices and relevant Standards, Codes and Regulations to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1. Analogue and digital signals

 Comparison between analogue and digital signals

Observing digital and analogue waveforms

 

T2. Numbering systems

 The binary number system

 The hexadecimal number system

 Binary addition and subtraction

 

T3. Numbering systems - conversions

 Conversion between numbering systems

 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD)

 Gray code

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)

 Unicode

 

T4. Combinational logic circuits

 Precautions when handling electronic devices due to electrostatic discharge (ESD)

 Truth tables

 Basic operation and characteristics of logic gates

 

Logic probes

· Verification of operation of logic circuits

 

T5. Digital displays

 Seven segment LED displays

 Drive requirements

 Current limiting

 Multiplexed displays

 Seven segment Decoders

 Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)

 Emerging display technologies

Verification of seven segment display circuit

 Interfacing with logic circuits

 

T6. Digital subsystem building blocks

 Encoders and Decoders

 Multiplexers and Demultiplexers

 Timing diagrams

 Flip flops, Latches and registers

 Ripple counters

 MOD counters

Synchronous counters Multi-vibrators

 Clocks

 Verification and operation (eg. PLDs, ICs)

 

T7. Digital fault finding

 General fault finding principles

 Common digital faults

 Digital test equipment

 Digital test equipment (eg. Logic probes, Digital Oscilloscopes, digital trainers)

 

T8. Logic families and specifications

 Input and output voltage characteristics

 Comparison of logic families

 Unit load

 Noise margin

 Interfacing different logic families

Tri-state logic devices

 

Overview and applications of A/D converter and D/A converter

 

EE116

Process Control System

 

This unit covers solving problems in industrial control systems. The unit encompasses safe working practices, interpreting process and circuit diagrams, applying knowledge of industry controls to problem solving techniques, safety and functional testing and completing the necessary documentation.

Note.

Typical basic industrial control system problems are those encountered in meeting performance requirements and compliance standards, revising control operating parameters and dealing with control malfunctions.

 

KS01-EI120A

Industrial control systems

Evidence shall show an understanding of industrial control systems to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

Control amplifiers encompassing:

 Introduction

 Amplifier Operation

 Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifier Configurations

 

Industrial transducers encompassing:

 Introduction

 SI Units

 Forms of Energy

Transducer Terminology

 Temperature Measurement

 Force Measurement

 Speed Measurement

 

SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE

 

 Positional Measurement

 

Industrial final control elements encompassing:

 Introduction

 Electromagnetic Devices

 Valves

 Solid State Switching Devices

 

Industrial control systems encompassing:

 Automatic Control

 Open Loop Control

 Closed Loop Control

 Control System Terminology

 Control System Evaluation

 Two Position Control

 Proportional Control (P)

 Proportional + Integral Control (P+I)

 Proportional + Derivative Control (P+D)

 Proportional + Integral + Derivative Control (P+I+D)

 

Industrial control loops and control signals encompassing:

 Introduction

 Control Loops

 Converters (D to A and A to D)

 Multiplexing

 

 

 

EE117

Solar Electrical System

 

 

This unit covers providing known solutions to predictable problems in photovoltaic energy apparatus and systems operated at ELV and LV. It encompasses working safely, problem solving procedures, including the use of basic voltage, current and resistance measuring devices, providing known solutions to predictable circuit problems.

 

KS01-EK125A

Photovoltaic power systems

Evidence shall show an understanding of photovoltaic power systems to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Daily irradiation encompassing:

definition of the terms: declination angle, reflectance, sunshine hours, extraterrestrial irradiation, Latitude, direct and diffuse radiation, azimuth and altitude angles, radiance, solar window, tilt angle, solstice, equinox

 units and symbols for irradiation and irradiance

 interpretation of solar radiation data tables and contour maps.

 measuring solar irradiance with a solarimeter.

 

 

how radiation varies throughout the year on the surface of a fixed collector.

 determining, using field measurements and a sun path diagram, the times and dates when a PV array will be shaded by obstacles at a particular site.

 calculation of the daily average irradiation on a horizontal plane given extraterrestrial irradiation, location constants and sunshine hour data.

 calculation of the monthly mean daily irradiation falling on a PV array for each month of the year, adjusted for the effects of shading, using irradiance and irradiation data tables and a sun path diagram and/or appropriate software.

 selection of an appropriate tilt angle for fixed and seasonally-adjustable PV arrays at an given latitude

 

T2 Photovoltaic modules encompassing:

 definition of the terms: cell, module, array, mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline, amorphous, band gap energy, semi-conductor

 diagram of a basic crystalline silicon PV cell, showing its physical structure, with at least five major features labelled

 major steps in the production of PV modules based on bulk silicon cells, in comparison with the production of thin film PV modules.

 basic physical principles of PV cell operation for the main types of commercially available PV modules.

 efficiency, spectral response, cost and typical applications of the main types of commercially available PV modules.

 new photovoltaic technologies currently being developed towards commercialisation, and their major features.

 mechanical and electrical features necessary for the long life of a PV module under a wide range of operating conditions.

 

T3 Module characteristics encompassing:

 definition of the terms: I-V curve, fill factor, operating point, maximum power point (MPP), cell temperature co-efficient, nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT), current, voltage and power output co-efficient.

 equivalent circuit for a PV cell, labelling each of the elements and the polarity of the terminals.

 family of I-V curves for a PV module, labelling major points and showing the effects of variation in irradiance and variation in cell temperature.

 

 

jor ratings of a PV module from manufacturer’s information or nameplate data.

 determination of the operating point of a PV module with a resistive load, a constant voltage source or any other load with known I-V characteristics, using the load line method.

 configuration of a typical PV array, including the function, placement and ratings of blocking and bypass diodes.

 the effect of partial shading of a PV module or array, the impact of bypass diodes and the significance of their configuration on output current in typical operating conditions.

 calculation of the power at MPP, and the power under typical battery charging conditions, of a PV module, given irradiance and ambient air temperature.

 calculation of the daily energy output of a PV array in accordance with AS 4509.2, and by using "rule of thumb" de-rating factors.

 the scope and content of Australian or international standards relevant to the performance of PV modules.

 the electrical characteristics of a PV module according to relevant Australian or International standards, using an outdoor test method.

 

EE118

Electrical Energy Supply System

 

 

2.6.21

a) Generation

primary energy sources

power stations

power station output

acts and legislation relating to generation

renewable energy sources and techniques

 

b) Transmission

system requirements

principal components of a power system

voltage levels

grid systems

acts/legislation relating to transmission

future trends

 

c) Distribution

high voltage distribution systems

medium/low voltage distribution systems

radial feeders

parallel feeders

ring main feeders

acts/legislation relating to distribution

 

d) Substations

purpose

location

layout

 

e) Overhead and underground systems

relative merits

applications

planning

installation

 

f) Power distribution system electrical characteristics

transmission and distribution systems

inductance, capacitance and resistance

 

g) Voltage problems in a power distribution system

low voltage

unbalanced voltages

voltage rises

h) Voltage regulation

autotransformers with OLTC

transformers with OLTC

static capacitors

load control

 

i) Control of OLTC

regulation relays

control circuits

line drop compensation

 

j) Power distribution system faults

type/classification of fault

typical causes/effects of faults

three-phase symmetrical fault levels

fault level limitation

 

k) Voltage surges in a power distribution system

lightning surges

switching surges

typical surge levels

surge impedance, typical values

significance of the system surge impedance.

 

l) Metering and metered quantities

purpose

energy

maximum demand

accuracy classes for metering systems

 

m) Energy and demand meters

construction

operation

adjustments

testing

 

n) Metering circuits

direct metering

instrument transformer metering

 

o) Electronic metering systems and recording meters

types

applications

connections

 

p) Load control

purpose

methods

.6.22.1

a) Protection fundamentals encompassing:

purpose of protection

features of a protection scheme

 

b) Instrument transformers for protection encompassing:

Operating principles

Applications of current transformers

Applications of voltage transformers

 

c) Feeder protection encompassing:

fuse protection

overcurrent & earth fault

sensitive earth fault

unit schemes

distance protection

trip/close sequences for feeders

recloser/sectionaliser systems

 

d) Transformer protection encompassing:

overheating protection

overcurrent protection

restricted earth fault protection

differential protection

oil and gas devices

 

e) Busbar protection encompassing:

types of fault

requirements of busbar protection

system protection

frame-earth protection

 

f) Surge protection encompassing:

voltage surges (revision)

surge diverters

arcing horns

 

EE119

Electrical Risk Assessment

 

This unit covers the mandatory requirements of persons in a supervisory role to implement and monitor an organisation’s occupational health and safety policies, procedures and programs. It encompasses understanding an organisation’s OHS obligations, providing safety information to staff, implementing and monitoring participative arrangements, safety procedures and training and maintaining safety records.

 

KS01-EE117A Energy sector Occupational Health and Safety, supervisory responsibilities

Evidence shall show an understanding of OHS enterprise responsibilities to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Provisions of relevant occupational health and safety legislation

T2 Principles and practice of effective occupational health and safety management

T3 Workplace hazards, range and selection of control measures

T4 Organisational health and safety management systems and policies and procedures needed for legislative compliance

T5 Impact of characteristics and composition of the workforce on occupational health and safety management

T6 Relevance of occupational health and safety management to other organisational management policies, procedures and systems.

T7 Analysis of entire work environment and judge occupational health and safety interventions

T8 Analysis of relevant workplace data

T9 Ability to assess resources needed for risk control

 

EE120

Electrical Contracting & Specification

 

This unit covers developing requirement to be incorporated into the writing of specifications for electrical engineering projects. It encompasses determining the safety requirements to be met, establishing client expectations, ensuring cost effective solutions are pursued and documenting design and technical requirements.

 

KS01-EE071B Electrical engineering specification development

Evidence shall show an understanding of electrical engineering specification writing to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Electrical engineering specifications encompassing:

 Purpose and nature of specification

 Performance based specifications

 Prescriptive specifications

 Acceptable evidence of compliance

 Additional service required with the supply of equipment

 

T2 Dealing with suppliers and manufacturer’s encompassing:

 Documenting specification

 Customer/client relations encompassing:

 Importance of customer/client relations

 Interpersonal skills that enhance customer/client

 Dispute resolution

Customer/client relations strategies

 

T3 Using basic computers functions encompassing:

 Starting up

 Selecting application

 Entering information

 Saving

 Printing

 

T4 Research skills encompassing:

Terminology - Terminology used in a research workplace; Terminology used in research-specific literature and the like.

Theory – why conduct research - The history of research; past research successes; past research failures; Research Protocols; Research practices and the like.

The research environment - The research work environment; Standard research practices; Industrial, legal, ethical, political and market environment considerations; Legislation and regulation; Contractual obligations of all parties

 

and the like.

Planning to conduct research - Concept development and/or research brief analysis; Research objectives; Research deliverables; Research project plan; Literature reviews; Methodology development, including; Experimental design, Technology selection, Information Management system selection and the like

Clients - identifying client viewpoints and stake in project; Identifying client requirements and parameters; Determining research budgets, timelines, milestones and quality attributes with clients.

Research, Development and Commercialisation - Research and Development goals versus Commercialisation goals and realities; Research and Development to inspire a commercialisation process

 

EE121

Electronics Power Control Device

 

This unit covers solving problems with electronic aspects of single phase power control devices and circuits. The unit encompasses safe working practices, interpreting diagrams, applying knowledge of electronic power control devices and their application, using effective problem solving techniques, safety and functional testing and reporting work activities and outcomes.

Note.

Typical single phase electronic power control problems are those encountered in meeting performance requirements and compliance standards, revising control operating parameters and dealing with control malfunctions.

 

KS01-EI148A

Single phase electronic power control circuit

 

Evidence shall show an understanding of single phase electronic power control circuit to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

 

Introduction to Power Control

 Advantages and benefits of power control

Need for power control and typical applications

 Power control methods

 Types of solid state switches

 Block diagram of a power converter

 Power control terminology

 

 

 

Modes of operation.

 

 

Single Phase Power Rectifiers

 Single Phase Rectifier Circuit Configurations

 Resistive/Inductive Loads

 Output Voltages/Waveforms

 Ripple Voltage/Frequency

 Peak Reverse Voltages

 Free Wheeling Diodes

 

 

Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs)

 Construction and Symbol

 Basic Operating Principles

 Characteristics

 Gate Requirements

 Commutation

 Electrical Ratings

 Testing SCRs

 Applications.

 

 

Triacs and Gate Turn Off (GTO) Thyristors

 Triac Construction and Symbol

 Triac Basic Operating Principles

 Triac Characteristics

 Triac Triggering Modes

 Triac Electrical Ratings

 Triac Testing

 GTO Construction and Symbol

 GTO Basic Operating Principles

 GTO Characteristics

 GTO Electrical Ratings

 Applications for Triac and GTOs

 

 

Power Transistors (BJTs)

 BJT Construction and Symbol

 BJT Basic Operating Principles

 BJT Characteristics

 BJT Electrical Ratings

 BJT Testing

 Applications for BJTs

 

 

Power Field Effect Transistors (FET)

 Types of FETs used for power control

 Power FETs Construction and Symbol

 FET Basic Operating Principles and Characteristics

 IGBT Basic Operating Principles and Characteristics

 Power FET Electrical Ratings

 

 

 

Power FET Testing

 Applications for Power FETs

 

 

Triggering Devices

Diac:

 construction and symbol

 operating principles

 breakover voltage.

 Unijunction transistors (UJTs)

 construction and symbol

 operating principles

 intrinsic standoff ratio and peak point voltage

 

 

Programmable Unijunction Transistors (PUTs)

 construction and symbol

 operating principles

 programmable standoff ratio

 peak point voltage

 

 

Triggering Circuits

 R-C Time Constant Circuits

 Diac Trigger Circuit Operation

 UJT Relaxation Oscillator Circuit Operation

 PUT Relaxation Oscillator Circuit

 

 

Half Wave Controlled Rectification

 

 

Phase shift control

 Controlled rectifiers

 Controlled rectifier power output control

 Single Phase Half-Wave Controlled Rectifier

 Circuit configuration

 circuit operation

 waveforms

 load voltage

 applications and limitations

 Problems Associated with Phase Shift Control

 

 

Full Wave Controlled Bridge Rectification

 Single phase full-wave controlled bridge rectifier circuit

 Output voltage

 Output waveforms

 Applications and limitations

 Advantages and disadvantages

 

 

Fully Controlled Bridge Rectification

 Single phase fully controlled rectifier bridge circuit

 Output voltage

 Output waveforms

 Applications and limitations

 Advantages and disadvantages

 

 

Single-Phase a.c. Voltage Control

 Phase control of a.c. power

 Circuit configurations - half and full control circuits

 Triggering circuits

 Circuit performance and operation on resistive and inductive loads

 Output voltage and waveform, determination of output voltage using circuit characteristics

 Range of control with inductive loads

 Triggering problems associated with inductive loads.

 Applications and limitations

 

 

Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS)

 Operating principles

 Circuit configuration – including trigger circuits

 

 

 

Circuit operation and waveforms – resistive loads only

 Relationship between load power and conduction time

 Solid state relays; types and ratings

 Applications and limitations

 

 

Fault Finding of Power Control Circuits

 Fault finding procedures

 Typical faults – power and trigger circuits

 Characteristics displayed by common faults

 Comparison of test data with expected data (voltage/current waveforms)

 Location and replacement of faulty components

 

 

EE201

Engineering Mathematics

 

This unit covers the application of computational processes to solve engineering problems. It encompasses working safely, applying problem solving techniques, using a range of mathematical processes, providing solutions to electrical/electronics engineering problems and justifying such solutions.

Note. Typical engineering problems are those encountered in meeting requirements in a design brief, meeting performance requirements and compliance standards, revising systems operating parameters and dealing with system malfunctions

 

KS01-EE126A Electrotechnology engineering maths

Evidence shall show an understanding of electrotechnology engineering maths to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Rational, irrational numbers and basic algebra

 simplification of expressions involving square roots and cube roots

 scientific and engineering notation

evaluation of expressions using a calculator

 convert units of physical quantities using unity brackets

 substitute given values into formulae to find physical quantities

manipulate algebraic expressions using mathematical operations in their correct order, the laws of indices, expansion of brackets and collecting like terms

T2 Algebraic manipulation

 Factorise algebraic expressions using common factors

 Factorise quadratic expressions using trial and error on the factors of the coefficients

Simplify algebraic fractions using common denominators and cancelling

 Solve simple one variable equations including algebraic fractions

 Find the quotient and remainder given a linear divisor.

 Transpose formulae to find a required variable.

T3 Laws of indices

Conversion between decimal notation, scientific notation and engineering notation

Laws of indices: positive /negative values, multiplication/division, fractional values, index equals zero

 Logarithmic laws: multiply/divide

solution of exponential equations using logarithms, substitution and solution of relevant formulae involving exponents or logarithms

Graphs of exponential functions, 10x and ex and the inverses log10(x) and loge(x) functions on log-linear graphs

 Convert numbers into scientific and engineering notation using the laws of indices

Manipulate and simplify arithmetic and algebraic expressions using the laws of indices and logarithms

 Express logarithms as indices.

 Perform logarithmic operations.

 Determine logarithms and antilogarithms to base 10, using a scientific calculator.

Determine logarithms and antilogarithms to base e, using a scientific calculator.

 Convert logarithmic values from base 10 to base e and vice versa.

Sketch given functions on log-linear graphs

T4 Estimations, errors and approximations

 Errors in measurement

Maximum probable error

Show awareness of errors in measurement and of giving results in appropriate number of significant figures

 Use estimations and approximations to check the reasonableness of results.

T5 Plane figures – triangles and basic trigonometry

Angles in a triangle

 Isosceles and equilateral triangles

 Congruent triangles

 Similar triangles

 Pythagoras' theorem

 Area of triangles

 Basic trigonometry functions

 Degrees, radians

 The ratios: sin, cos, tan, cosec, sec, cot.

 Inverse trig functions

 Sine and cosine rules

T6 Plane figures - quadrilaterals and circles

 Types and properties of quadrilaterals

 Areas and perimeters of regular quadrilaterals

 Lengths of arcs

Angles in a circle - degrees

Angles in a circle - radians

 Lengths of chord segments

 Tangents to circles

Circumference and area of circles

 Names and characteristics of common polygons

T7 Graphs of Trigonometric functions

 Graph trigonometric functions and solve trigonometric equations.

 Simplify trigonometric expressions using trigonometric identities

Convert angular measure in degrees to radians and vice versa

 Graph trigonometric functions including graphs of y = sin x and y = cos x

Using vocational applications of current or voltage as a function of time, consider changes in amplitude, consider changes in frequency.

 Examine relationships of frequency, period and angular velocity.

Sketch graphs of the form f(t) = a sin φt and f(t) = a cos φt, where a is the peak voltage or current, and φ is the angular velocity

Solve graphically equations of the form f(t) = a sin φt and f(t) = a cos φt

 

Show a positive or negative angle on the unit circle.

· Use symmetry properties to find trigonometric ratios for angles greater than ð/2.

· Solve simple vocational problems relating period, frequency and angular velocity.

 

T8 Graphs of linear functions

 The number plane

 Gradient and x and y intercepts of a straight line

Equation of a straight line length and mid-point of a straight line segment

 Function notation

 

T9 Simultaneous equations

 Graphical solutions

 Substitution

 Elimination

Solve 2 linear simultaneous equations both algebraically and graphically.

T10 Matrices

 Perform the basic operations on matrices up to 3 x 3

 Manipulate matrix equations and expressions

Recognise inverse and identity matrices up to 3 x 3 and use to solve systems of linear equations.

 Find determinants up to 3 x 3 and use to solve systems of linear equations.

 Solve problems involving more than two simultaneous equations.

 State the limitations of graphical methods of solution.

 Distinguish between a matrix and an array.

Describe the null, diagonal and unit matrix

Describe and identify a singular/non-singular matrix

 

T11 Quadratic functions

Graphs of quadratic functions represented by parabolas and the significance of the leading coefficient.

Graph quadratic functions and solve quadratic equations.

Sketch and interpret the graphs of quadratic functions showing the significance of the leading coefficient and the zeros

 Solve quadratic equations by factoring or using quadratic formula

Solve simultaneously linear and quadratic equations algebraically and geometrically

Interpret verbally formulated problems involving quadratic and linear equations and solve.

T12 Exponential and logarithmic functions

Transform non-linear functions (including exponential) to linear forms and plot data.

Draw curves of best fit, interpolate data and estimate constants in suggested relationships.

 

Interpret verbally formulated problems involving growth and decay, and solve.

· Graph exponential and logarithmic functions and solve exponential and logarithmic equations.

Sketch the graphs of simple exponential and logarithmic functions showing behaviour for large and small values

 

T13 Vectors and Phasors

 The vector as an expression of magnitude and direction

The vector sum of x and y values in terms of magnitude and direction

 Rectangular components of vectors in the form x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ

Rectangular-polar and polar-rectangular conversion

 Vector addition and subtraction

 Express rectangular components of vectors in the form x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ

T14 Complex numbers

 Definitions and notation of complex numbers

 Complex numbers as vectors on an Argand diagram

 laws of complex numbers and apply the laws in suitable calculations.

 Plot complex numbers on the Argand plane.

Express vectors as complex numbers and perform suitable calculations.

 Calculate the conjugate of a complex number.

Using a calculator for rectangular-polar and polar-rectangular conversions.

 

EE202

Electrical Circuits

 

This unit covers determining correct operation of complex multiple path circuits and providing engineering solutions as they apply to various branches of electrotechnology work functions. It encompasses working safely, problem solving procedures, including using electrical measuring devices, applying appropriate circuit theorems and providing solutions derived from measurements and calculations and justification for such solutions.

 

KS01-EE125A Circuit analysis

Evidence shall show an understanding of circuit analysis to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Voltage/Current Sources and Kirchhoff’s Law for d.c. Linear Circuits encompassing:

calculating the effect of the internal resistance on terminal voltage and current delivered for practical voltage sources and current sources

calculating current and voltage in any d.c. network of up to two loops and three sources.

 Kirchhoff’s Law using a circuit simulation program.

 function and operation of an electronics circuit simulation program.

 using electronics circuit simulation program.

 

T2 Superposition Principles for d.c. Linear Circuits encompassing:

 d.c. networks (two loops, three sources)

 using simulation programs

 calculating current and voltage in any d.c. network of up to two loops and three sources.

 Superposition theorem using a circuit simulation program.

T3 Mesh and Nodal Analysis for d.c. Linear Circuits encompassing:

 writing mesh equations for d.c. networks containing up to three loops.

 writing Nodal equations for d.c. networks containing up to three nodes.

using mesh analysis to find currents in d.c. networks of up to two loops.

using nodal analysis to find node voltage and branch currents in d.c. networks of up to two nodes using a circuit simulation program to confirm the results of Mesh analysis or Nodal analysis of d.c. networks.

 

T4 Thévenin’s principles for d.c. Linear Circuits encompassing:

calculating the effect of the internal resistance on terminal voltage and current delivered for practical voltage sources and current sources.

calculating the Thévenin equivalent voltage and resistance for d.c. networks and determining the load current, voltage and power.

 converting the Thévenin equivalent circuit to a Norton equivalent circuit and vice versa.

 verifying the equivalence of Thévenin equivalent circuits by measurement.

T5 Norton’s principles for d.c. linear circuits encompassing:

calculating the effect of the internal resistance on terminal voltage and current delivered for practical voltage sources and current sources.

calculating the Norton equivalent current and resistance for d.c. networks and determining the load current, voltage and power.

 converting the Thévenin equivalent circuit to a Norton equivalent circuit and vice versa.

 verifying the equivalence of Norton equivalent circuits by measurement.

 

T6 Phasors encompassing:

 time domain and frequency domain

frequency, angular frequency and units of measurement

 defining rms and convert between time domain and rms phasor values for a sine wave.

 converting between angular frequency and frequency.

 using a calculator to convert between polar and rectangular forms of phasor.

 representing a.c. voltages on a phasor diagram.

T7 Complex Impedance encompassing:

 defining impedance, resistance and reactance.

 defining admittance, conductance and susceptance.

 converting between conductance to resistance.

converting between susceptance and reactance.

 converting between impedance and admittance.

 sketching impedance and admittance diagrams.

calculating two-component series equivalent circuits and two-component parallel equivalent circuits and convert between these forms.

 

T8 Series and parallel a.c. linear circuits encompassing:

 Kirchhoff’s Laws

 series equivalent impedance

 parallel equivalent impedance

 voltage divider and current divider rules

calculating and measuring voltage and currents in a series a.c .circuit and draw the phasor diagram.

 

calculating and measuring currents in a parallel a.c. circuit and draw the phasor diagram.

· calculating and measuring voltage and currents in a series/parallel a.c. circuit and draw the phasor diagram.

 

T9 Superposition principles and Kirchoff’s Laws applied to a.c. linear circuits encompassing:

 calculating current and voltage in any a.c. network of up to two loops and two sources.

 using circuit simulation programs to demonstrate the superposition theorem.

function and operation of an electronics circuit simulation program.

 entering given circuit specifications into an electronic circuit program.

setting the circuit simulation program operation parameters including input and output values, ranges and graduation.

producing hardcopies of the circuit and analyse results.

T10 Mesh and Nodal analysis for a.c. linear circuits encompassing:

 Mesh analysis

 Node voltages and nodal analysis

 matrix representation

 method of determinants

 writing mesh equations for a.c. networks containing up to three loops.

writing nodal equations for a.c. networks containing up to three nodes.

 using mesh analysis to find currents in a.c. networks of up to two loops.

using nodal analysis to find node voltage and branch currents in a.c. networks of up to two nodes.

using a circuit simulation program to confirm the results of mesh analysis or nodal analysis of a.c. networks.

T11 Thévenin and Norton theorems applied to a.c. linear circuits encompassing:

calculating the effect of the internal resistance on terminal voltage and current delivered for practical voltage sources and current sources.

calculating the Thévenin equivalent voltage and impedance for a.c. networks and determining the load current, voltage and power.

calculating the Norton equivalent current and impedance for a.c. networks and determining the load current, voltage and power.

 converting the Thévenin equivalent circuit to a Norton equivalent circuit and vice versa.

 verifying the equivalence of Thévenin and Norton equivalent circuits by measurement.

 

T12 Star-delta conversions encompassing:

 Star connections

Star-delta transformation formula equations

 selection of appropriate conversion

calculating the delta connected equivalent of a star connected balanced a.c. or d.c. load and vice versa.

converting a complex non-series/parallel network to a series/parallel network by means

 

of star-delta or delta-star conversions.

verifying star-delta and delta-star network conversions by measurements.

 

T13 Complex a.c. power and maximum power transfer theorem encompassing:

true power, reactive power and apparent power

 maximum power transfer

calculating real, reactive and apparent power for series/parallel a.c. circuits and state the appropriate units of measurement.

 calculating the power factor of a.c. series/parallel circuits.

drawing power triangle for a given circuit.

calculating the load value which would consume maximum power and calculate this power for d.c. networks.

calculating the load value which would consume maximum power in an a.c. network when the load is a pure resistance and calculate the power.

calculating the load value which would consume maximum power in an a.c. network when the load is an impedance of variable resistance and reactance and calculate the power.

 verifying load selection by measurement.

T14 Transients encompassing:

transients in R-C and R-L circuits

 growth and decay

calculating voltage and currents in R-C series circuits using exponential equations.

calculating voltage and currents in R-L series circuits using exponential equations

 

EE203

Three Phase Power Circuits

 

This unit covers determining correct operation of complex polyphase power circuits and providing solutions as they apply to electrical power engineering work functions. It encompasses working safely, problem solving procedures, including using electrical measuring devices, applying appropriate circuit theorems and providing solutions derived from measurements and calculations and justification for such solutions.

 

KS01-EG149A Polyphase power circuit analysis

Evidence shall show an understanding of polyphase power circuit analysis to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Polyphase supply system encompassing:

 advantage of three phase system compared to single phase systems

double subscript notation

 phase sequence

 120 degree operator

 given circuit component parameters, solve practically based problems using:

 equivalent circuits of transformers, lines and loads.

 component values using rectangular and polar notation.

current divider and potential divider rules using complex impedances.

 The “per unit” values of voltage, current, VA and impedance to a common VA base.

 

T2 Types of three phase system connections encompassing:

 supply to balanced star, 3 and 4 wire loads

supply to delta connected loads

 effects of phase reversal

 

 

representation of currents and voltages as complex phasors for 3 phase and 3 phase and neutral quantities.

calculation the values of and draw labeled phasor diagrams, not to scale, to represent complex values of current and voltage for balanced and unbalanced loads for star and delta systems.

 calculation of values of P, Q and S for balanced and unbalanced systems.

draw and label single phase diagrams to represent 1 phase of a complex 3 phase system.

represent unbalanced voltages or currents as symmetrical components.

 Phase to phase currents

 Phase to neutral/earth currents.

T3 Balanced three phase loads encompassing:

 calculations of balanced loads connected in star

 calculations of balanced loads connected in delta

calculation of steady state values of fault current for various configurations.

evaluation of the symmetrical component impedances for the various distribution system components. Transformers (earthed neutral case). Generators (high impedance earth)

calculation of fault currents using the per unit approach.

calculation using the “worst case” values based on transformer impedance only (ie., a short circuit fault)

 estimation of peak values using accepted multipliers.

effects of the d.c. component on the instantaneous magnitudes of fault currents in transformers and generators.

T4 Unbalanced three phase loads encompassing:

Star – 4 wire systems

 Delta systems

Star – 3 wire systems

 Star 4 wire with neutral impedance

 

T5 Power in three-phase circuits encompassing:

summation of phase powers and power in balanced loads

measurement of power in balanced loads – 2 Wattmeter methods

 

T6 Reactive three phase power encompassing:

 power triangle calculation

 measurement of VAR

 power factor correction

T7 Fault currents encompassing:

 symmetrical components

 positive, negative and zero sequence impedance

 

fault current breaking and let-through energy capacities of circuit breakers, fuses

 importance of fault/arc impedance

calculation of fault currents - phase-to-earth faults

calculation of fault currents - phase-to-phase faults

 analysis of asymmetrical faults currents.

 

T8 Harmonics in three phase systems encompassing:

 presence of triple in harmonics in 3 phase systems

 effects of 3 phase harmonics for different star and delta connections.

 methods for reducing harmonics in three phase systems.

 

EE204

Engineering Physics

 

This unit covers the law of physics and how they apply to solving electrotechnology related problems. It encompasses working safely, knowledge of measurements of physical phenomena, linear and angular motion, harmonic motion, wave theory, optics, acoustics and heat capacity and transfer, use of measurement techniques, solving physics related problems and documenting justification for such solutions.

 

KS01-EE082A Electrotechnology engineering physics

Evidence shall show an understanding of electro engineering physics to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Measurement encompassing

 SI units in measurement of physical phenomena

Uncertainty and tolerance

 

T2 Linear motion

T3 Angular motion

T4 Simple harmonic motion and vibration

T5 Wave theory

 Interference

 Diffraction

T6 Electromagnetic waves and propagation

T7 Optics

 Mirrors and lenses

 Optical fibre

 

T8 Acoustics and ultrasonics

T9 Heat capacity and heat transfer

 Fluid power

 

EE205

Electrical Power System

 

2.6.22.6

Electrical power distribution systems diagnostic

 

a) Distribution system overview including:

regulatory conditions of supply and utilisation

compliance with Australian Standards.

reticulation system including overhead/underground, urban/rural, HV customers and high-rise building systems. The effects of industrial customers

methods used to ensure continuity of supply.

types of substations in current use.

systems of distribution used, (primary and secondary)

voltage levels, power factor, wave-form distortion and transient loading

supply quality

load curve profiles (residential/industrial/commercial)

types of feeders

distribution systems (urban, rural single-phase systems, SWER, spur, parallel and ring systems etc.)

 

b) Overhead lines and installation

industry and safety regulations

overhead conductors

conductor material

current rating factors (heating, voltage drops, power losses)

aerial bundled cables (HV and LV)

covered conductors

 

Note: The characteristics of lines and cables including the calculation of R, X and B for different arrangements of conductor. Typical values for actual lines. Transposition. Models based on line length. Voltage and line regulation

overhead line poles

types (wood, concrete and steel)

installation of poles (tooling, rake, life, labelling, sinking)

maintenance of poles – above & below ground

pole strength and loads

crossarms

types and standard sizes

insulators

insulation types

types (pin, suspension or disc, shackle)

creepage, necessary clearances

arcing horns, insulator mounting

structure types

mechanical properties (working strength, maximum tension, limiting size)

interpretation of stringing charts

 

determination of sag (by calculations or measurement and/or tension measurement)

sight and wave sagging, sag correction

stays

components, anchorage

 

c) Use of design schedules

sample design problems

 

Note: Examples of common design practice line, voltage, structure types used, line deviation, span sag, crossarms, insulators and stays wind loading and line deviation loading basic surveying

measurement of levels, deviation angle and compass bearings

perform survey of short distribution line extension of produce field notes

 

d) Underground cables

cable types, ratings, core material, design considerations, cable dielectrics, insulating materials and abbreviations, electric stress, cable volt drop and volt drop calculations, cable termination, joints and installation.

induction and eddy currents

cable testing, cable fault location

cable drawing

 

e) Voltage regulations of feeders and associated equipment

terminology used: distribution system, service line, customer‘s terminals, customer voltage, utilisation voltage, base voltage, voltage variation and bandwidth

voltage limits and effects of voltage variation

causes of variation: inductance, capacitance and reactance of distribution lines, transformers

methods of voltage control: off-load, on-load tap changers, voltage regulating relays, line drop compensation, different types of voltage regulators

voltage profiles: principles, effect on voltage profiles, limits of voltage, voltage drops due to LV mains transformers, tapsettings feeder and service lines

determining volt drops for components within the profile.

 

f) Control of voltage. Conditions leading to voltage collapse and system disintegration. Effects on the system of high/low volts. Voltage control devices including:

voltage regulators applied to generators and synchronous phase modifiers

electromagnetic voltage regulators

series and parallel capacitors

OLTC transformers and static Var compensations (SVCs)

 

g) Range of devices covered by SVCs including:

saturated reactor compensations (SRs)

thyristor controlled reactor compensators (TCRs)

combined TCR/TSCs and

production of wave-form distorting harmonics and control devices

 

h) Importance of the location in the system of voltage control devices

i) Types of communication systems including telephone, power line carrier, dedicated cable, micro-wave links and fibreoptics. Quantities and signals to be communicated. Advantages and disadvantages of the various systems. Equipment requirements

j) Transient over-voltages in power systems. Switching and lightning overvoltages and their

effect on different plant items. Transient over-voltage control and reduction using surge diverters, shield wires and CB are control. Insulation systems, insulation co-ordination, insulation grading in plant items, bushings and capacitor bushings

k) The principles of operation, voltage and current range, breaking capacity and field of use of the following types of circuit breakers.

bulk oil, small oil volume, air break, vacuum and SF6 (double pressure and puffer types).

 

l) The types of isolators in use. Examples include duo-roll, blade and scissor type.

m) Circuit breaker auxiliary systems including:

d.c. systems including battery types, charging and protection systems and earth fault detection systems

SF6 conditioning, storage and handling system

 

EE206

AC Machines

 

 

Synchronous Machines

 

This unit covers developing engineering solutions to resolve problems with synchronous machines and their controls. It encompasses working safely, apply extensive knowledge of synchronous machine operation, construction and their application, gathering and analysing data, applying problem solving techniques, developing and documenting solutions and alternatives

 

KS01-EG143A Synchronous machine diagnostics

Evidence shall show an understanding of developing engineering solutions for synchronous machine problems to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 a.c. generators – construction, types and cooling encompassing:

 construction of stator and rotor windings

 rotor construction (cylindrical and salient pole)

 advantages of rotating field construction

 excitation methods

 cooling methods

 prime movers

 

T2 a.c. generators – operating principles and characteristics encompassing:

a.c. generator equivalent circuits (synchronous reactance and resistance components)

tests – open circuit, short circuit, stator impedance

 voltage regulation, island generator’s terminal voltage load power factor

determination of excitation voltage and load angle

 

T3 Synchronising a.c. generators encompassing:

 conditions for synchronising (infinite bus)

 methods for synchronising (lamp methods, synchroscope)

 alternator load sharing, parallel operation

T4 a.c. generators power, torque and efficiency encompassing:

 power input, input torque, speed

 power losses

 output power, load power factor, rotor angle, pu power

 efficiency

 performance chart interpretation

 

T5 Voltage regulation (AVR) encompassing:

 need for AVR’s

 features of AVR’s

effects of rotor inductance

 connections of AVRs

 operation of AVRs

 

T6 a.c. generator operational stability encompassing:

 power output, VAR effects, rotor angle, excitation

 control of VAR (OLTC transformers)

 voltage dependant nature of stability

critical clearance angle of a.c. generator

 stability limits

 

T7 a.c. generator protection encompassing:

 restricted, unrestricted primary, back up and duplicated protection

overcurrent, short circuit, differential, reverse power, load unbalance, rotor overload, loss-of-field, rotor earth fault, station earth fault, under frequency protection

 external fault protection

 

T8 Induction generator encompassing:

 types operating principles, characteristics

 excitation methods

 losses and efficiency

 synchronising and paralleling

 

T9 Three phase synchronous motors encompassing:

construction – rotor, stator, windings

 excitation methods

 operating principles (equivalent circuits, synchronous impedance)

 hunting and stability limits

 power factor correction

 paralleling and synchronisation techniques

starting methods

 braking methods

 

Part 2 Induction Machines

 

This unit covers developing engineering solutions to resolve problems with induction machines and their controls. It encompasses working safely; apply extensive knowledge of induction machine operation and construction and their application, gathering and analysing data, applying problem solving techniques, developing and documenting solutions and alternatives.

Note.

Typical motor problems are those encountered in meeting performance requirements and compliance standards, revising a machine operating parameters and dealing with machine malfunctions.

 

KS01-EG145A Induction machines diagnostics

Evidence shall show an understanding of developing engineering solutions for induction motor problems to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Operating principles of polyphase induction motors encompassing:

rotating magnetic field torque slip

 MMF relationships

 Leakage fluxes

 

T2 Construction of polyphase induction motors encompassing:

 squirrel cage motors

slip-ring motors

 construction considerations in minimisation of tooth locking

 

T3 Speed-torque relationships in induction motors encompassing:

 maximum torque

torque – slip relationships

 squirrel cage rotor types

 power flow in the motors

 power distribution

 torque units

 slip ring rotors

T4 Induction motor performance testing encompassing:

 no-load tests

 

locked rotor tests

· development of motor equivalent circuit from test results

· analysis of motor performance using circle diagrams

 

T5 Induction motor starters encompassing:

 starting requirements

 type of starters

 starting torque

 starting dynamics

 static friction

 mechanical loads

 starting duration

 

T6 Reduced voltage starting encompassing:

 starting dynamics

 change over conditions

 starting duration

 acceleration curves

T7 Speed control of induction motors encompassing:

 constant torque, constant power concepts

torque-flux-voltage relationships

 rotor resistance control

 stator impedance control

 variable frequency control (e.g. PAM, PWM, Flux vector control)

 

T8 Braking of induction motors encompassing:

electrical braking systems (plugging, d.c. dynamic, regenerative, capacitor-magnetic)

 mechanical braking systems (mechanical drum, demag, eddy current)

 

T9 Motor protection encompassing:

 overload

 earth fault

 phase failure

 

T10 Motor selection criteria and RMS rating

T11 Induction motor maintenance/repair encompassing:

routine maintenance schedules

 type of repairs (mechanical, electrical)

 

T12 Single phase induction motors encompassing:

 operating principles (especially RMF)

 construction types

 

· speed-torque relationships

 testing

 

EE207

DC Machine

 

This unit covers developing engineering solutions to resolve problems with d.c. machines and their controls. It encompasses working safely; apply extensive knowledge of d.c machine operation and construction and their application, gathering and analysing data, applying problem solving techniques, developing and documenting solutions and alternatives.

Note.

Typical machine problems are those encountered in meeting performance requirements and compliance standards, revising machine operating parameters and dealing with machine malfunctions.

 

KS01-EG144A Direct current machine diagnostics

Evidence shall show an understanding of developing engineering solutions for d.c. machine problems to an extent indicated by the following aspects:

T1 Basic d.c. machine construction and operation encompassing:

 General principles of operation

 Applications of d.c. machines

 Construction of d.c. machines

d.c. machine configurations; series, shunt, compound long shunt and compound short shunt

 Armature and field currents

 Insulation

 Ratings

 Cooling paths

 Bearings

 General maintenance of d.c. machines

 

T2 Construction and use of lap and wave windings encompassing:

 coils and elements

 generated voltage equation for generator

 generated voltage equation for motors

 application of lap and wave windings

 

T3 Commutation process encompassing:

 use of interpoles

 loading of machines

 brush shifting

 brush selection

 

classes of brush grades

 

Note:

Examples include: natural graphite, hard carbon, electrographite, metal-graphite, metal-carbon, “treated” grades

carbon brush contact characteristics

 

Note:

Examples include: specific resistance, thermal conductivity, density and porosity, elastic properties, contact properties

 carbon brush factors

 

Note:

Examples are: pressure, current, polarity, speed

 brush construction

 

Note:

Examples are: dimensions, tolerances, preferred sizes, surfaces, edges, bevels, flexible shunts, connection of flexible shunt to brush, insulation of flexible connections

 brush holders

Note:

Examples are: types, brush angles, trailing holders, reaction holders, top bevel angles, reversible rotation, cantilever holders, effective arc of contact, construction of brush holders, pressure mechanism

 mounting of brush holders and brushes

 

Note:

Examples are: clearances, brush angle, brush arm spacing, alignment, staggering, brush bedding, brush pressure

 brush operation

 

Note:

Examples are: temperature rise, number and size of brushes, current distribution etween brushes, slotting brushes, polarity effects, arc of contact, materials for commutators, mica

selection of brush grades

 

Note:

Examples are: machine data, current density, commutator peripheral speed, brush arc, pitch of segments, number of segments covered by brush, cooling surface

T4 Armature reaction in d.c. machines encompassing:

effect of armature reaction on d.c. machine characteristics

 use of compensating winding

 

T5 d.c. generators encompassing:

 relative advantages and disadvantages of the various dc generator configurations

 

and their performance under various load conditions

voltage regulation as a percentage or per unit value

 operation in parallel

 

T6 d.c. motors encompassing:

relative advantages and disadvantages of the various dc motor configurations and their performance under various load conditions

 shape of motor speed/torque curves

reversal of rotation

 

T7 Starting and protection of d.c. motors encompassing:

 types of d.c. motor starters in use

 d.c. motor protection

T8 Speed regulation and speed control of d.c. motors encompassing: