St Clements University Certificate/
Diploma / Advanced Diploma in Electrical Engineering
Course + Credit Outlines
YEAR 1 
Certificate in Electrical Engineering 15 credits 


SEMESTER (1) 
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15 Credits 

Diploma in Electrical Engineering 30 credits 
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SEMESTER (2) 

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30 Credits 

Advanced Diploma in Electrical Engineering 60 credits 
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SEMESTER (2) 

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30 Credits 
This unit covers determining correct operation of single source d.c.
series, parallel and seriesparallel circuits and providing solutions as they
apply to various electrotechnology work functions. It encompasses working
safely, problem solving procedures, including the use of voltage, current and
resistance measuring devices, providing solutions derived from measurements and
calculations to predictable problems in single and multiple path circuits.
Evidence shall show an understanding of electrical fundamentals and
direct current multiple path circuits to an extent indicated by the following
aspects:
T1 Basic electrical concepts encompassing:
electrotechnology industry
static and current electricity
production of electricity by renewable and non renewable energy
sources
transportation of electricity from the
source to the load via the transmission and distribution systems
utilisation of electricity by the various loads
basic calculations involving quantity
of electricity, velocity and speed with relationship to the generation and
transportation of electricity.
T2 Basic electrical circuit encompassing:
symbols used to represent an electrical
energy source, a load, a switch and a circuit protection device in a circuit
diagram
purpose of each component in the circuit
effects of an opencircuit, a
closedcircuit and a shortcircuit
multiple and submultiple units
T3 Ohm’s Law encompassing:
basic d.c. single path circuit.
voltage and currents levels in a basic d.c. single path
circuit.
effects of an opencircuit, a
closedcircuit and a shortcircuit on a basic d.c. single path relationship
between voltage and current from measured values in a simple circuit
determining voltage, current and
resistance in a circuit given any two of these quantities
graphical relationships of voltage, current and resistance
relationship between voltage, current
and resistance
T4 Electrical power encompassing:
relationship between force, power, work and energy
power dissipated in circuit from voltage, current and
resistance values
power ratings of devices
measurement electrical power in a d.c.
circuit
effects of power rating of various resistors
T5 Effects of electrical current encompassing:
physiological effects of current and
the fundamental principles (listed in AS/NZS 3000) for protection against the
this effect
basic principles by which electric current
can result in the production of heat; the production of magnetic fields; a
chemical reaction
typical uses of the effects of current
mechanisms by which metals corrode
fundamental principles (listed in
AS/NZS3000) for protection against the damaging effects of current
T6 EMF sources energy sources and conversion electrical energy
encompassing:
basic principles of producing a emf
from the interaction of a moving conductor in a magnetic field.
basic principles of producing an emf
from the heating of one junction of a thermocouple.
basic principles of producing a emf by
the application of sun light falling on the surface of photovoltaic cells
basic principles of generating a emf when a mechanical force is
applied to a crystal
(piezo electric effect)
principles of producing a electrical current from primary,
secondary and fuel cells
input, output, efficiency or losses of electrical systems and
machines
effect of losses in electrical wiring and machines
principle of conservation of energy
T7 Resistors encompassing:
features of fixed and variable resistor types and typical
applications
identification of fixed and variable resistors
various types of fixed resistors used
in the Electro technology Industry. e.g. wirewound, carbon film, tapped
resistors.
various types of variable resistors
used in the Electro technology Industry e.g. adjustable resistors:
potentiometer and rheostat; light dependent resistor (LDR); voltage dependent
resistor (VDR) and temperature dependent resistor (NTC, PTC).
characteristics of temperature, voltage
and light dependent resistors and typical applications of each
power ratings of a resistor.
power loss (heat) occurring in a conductor.
resistance of a colour coded resistor
from colour code tables and confirm the value by measurement.
measurement of resistance of a range of
variable’ resistors under varying conditions of light, voltage, temperature
conditions.
specifying a resistor for a particular application.
T8 Series circuits encompassing:
circuit diagram of a singlesource d.c.
‘series’ circuit.
Identification of the major components
of a ‘series’ circuit: power supply; loads; connecting leads and switch
applications where ‘series’ circuits are used in the Electro
technology industry.
characteristics of a ‘series’ circuit 
connection of loads, current path, voltage drops, power dissipation and affects
of an open circuit in a ‘series’ circuit.
the voltage, current, resistances or
power dissipated from measured or given values of any two of these quantities
relationship between voltage drops and
resistance in a simple voltage divider network.
setting up and connecting a
singlesource series dc circuit
measurement of resistance, voltage and
current values in a single source series circuit
effect of an opencircuit on a series
connected circuit
T9 Parallel circuits encompassing:
schematic diagram of a singlesource
d.c. ‘parallel’ circuit.
major components of a ‘parallel’ circuit (power supply, loads,
connecting leads and
· applications where ‘parallel’ circuits are used in
the Electrotechnology industry.
characteristics of a ‘parallel’
circuit. (load connection, current paths, voltage drops, power dissipation,
affects of an open circuit in a ‘parallel’ circuit).
relationship between currents entering
a junction and currents leaving a junction
relationship between branch currents
and resistances in a two branch current divider network.
calculation of the total resistance of a ‘parallel’ circuit.
calculation of the total current of a ‘parallel’ circuit.
Calculation of the total voltage and
the individual voltage drops of a ‘parallel’ circuit.
setting up and connecting a
singlesource d.c. parallel circuit
resistance, voltage and current
measurements in a singlesource parallel circuit
voltage, current, resistance or power
dissipated from measured values of any of these quantities
output current and voltage levels of connecting cells in
parallel.
T10 Series/parallel circuits encompassing:
schematic diagram of a singlesource
d.c. ‘series/parallel’ circuit.
major components of a ‘series/parallel’
circuit (power supply, loads, connecting leads and switch)
applications where ‘series/parallel’
circuits are used in the Electrotechnology industry.
characteristics of a ‘series/parallel’
circuit. (load connection, current paths, voltage drops, power dissipation,
affects of an open circuit in a ‘series/parallel’ circuit).
relationship between voltages, currents and resistances in a
bridge network.
calculation of the total resistance of a ‘series/parallel’
circuit.
calculation of the total current of a
‘series/parallel’ circuit.
calculation of the total voltage and
the individual voltage drops of a ‘series/parallel’ circuit.
setting up and connecting a
singlesource d.c. series/ parallel circuit
resistance, voltage and current
measurements in a singlesource d.c. series / parallel circuit
the voltage, current, resistances or
power dissipated from measured values of any two of these quantities
T11 Factors affecting resistance encompassing:
four factors that affect the resistance
of a conductor (type of material, length, crosssectional area and temperature)
affect the change in the type of
material (resistivity) has on the resistance of a conductor.
affect the change in ‘length’ has on the resistance of a
conductor.
affect the change in ‘crosssectional
area’ has on the resistance of a conductor.
effects of
temperature change on the resistance of various conducting materials
· effects of resistance on the currentcarrying
capacity and voltage drop in cables.
calculation of the resistance of a
conductor from factors such as conductor length, crosssectional area, resistivity
and changes in temperature
using digital and analogue ohmmeter to
measure the change in resistance of different types of conductive materials
(copper, aluminium, nichrome, tungsten) when those materials undergo a change
in type of material length, crosssectional area and temperature.
T12 Effects of meters in a circuit encompassing:
selecting an appropriate meter in terms
of units to be measured, range, loading effect and accuracy for a given
application.
measuring resistance using direct, voltammeter
and bridge methods.
instruments used in the field to
measure voltage, current, resistance and insulation resistance and the typical
circumstances in which they are used.
hazards involved in using electrical
instruments and the safety control measures that should be taken.
operating characteristics of analogue and digital meters.
correct techniques to read the scale of
an analogue meters and how to reduce the ‘parallax’ error.
types of voltmeters used in the
Electrotechnology industry – bench type, clamp meter, Multimeter, etc.
purpose and characteristics (internal
resistance, range, loading effect and accuracy) of a voltmeter.
types of voltage indicator testers.
e.g. LED, neon, solenoid, voltstick, series tester, etc. and explain the
purpose of each voltage indicator tester.
operation of various voltage indicator testers.
advantages and disadvantages of each voltage indicator tester.
various types of ammeters used in the
Electrotechnology industry – bench, clamp meter, multimeter, etc.
purpose of an ammeter and the correct
connection (series) of an ammeter into a circuit.
reasons why the internal resistance of
an ammeter must be extremely low and the dangers and consequences of connecting
an ammeter in parallel and/or wrong polarity.
selecting an appropriate meter in terms
of units to be measured, range, loading effect and accuracy for a given
application
connecting an analogue/digital
voltmeter into a circuit ensuring the polarities are correct and take various
voltage readings.
loading effect of various voltmeters when measuring voltage
across various loads.
using voltage indicator testers to detect the presence of
various voltage levels.
connecting analogue/digital ammeter
into a circuit ensuring the polarities are correct and take various current
readings.
T13 Resistance measurement encompassing:
Identification of instruments used in
the field to measure resistance (including insulation resistance) and the
typical circumstances in which they are used.
the purpose of an Insulation Resistance (IR) Tester.
the parts and functions of various
analogue and digital IR Tester (selector range switch, zero ohms adjustment,
battery check function, scale and connecting leads).
reasons why the supply must be isolated
prior to using the IR tester.
where and why the continuity test would be used in an
electrical installation.
where and why the insulation resistance
test would be used in an electrical installation.
the voltage ranges of an IR tester and
where each range may be used. e.g. 250 V d.c, 500 V d.c and 1000 V d.c
AS/NZS3000 Wiring Rules requirements –
continuity test and insulation resistance (IR) test.
purpose of regular IR tester calibration.
the correct methods of storing the IR
tester after use
carry out a calibration check on a IR Tester
measurement of low values of resistance using an IR tester
continuity functions.
measurement of high values of
resistance using an IR tester insulation resistance function.
voltammeter (short shunt and long
shunt) methods of measuring resistance.
calculation of resistance values using
voltmeter and ammeter reading (long and short shunt connections)
measurement of resistance using
voltammeter methods
T14 Capacitors and Capacitance encompassing:
basic construction of standard
capacitor, highlighting the: plates, dielectric and connecting leads
different types of dielectric material and each dielectric’s
relative permittivity.
identification of various types of capacitors
commonly used in the Electrotechnology industry (fixed value capacitors
stacked plate, rolled, electrolytic, ceramic, mica and Variable value
capacitors – tuning and trimmer)
circuit symbol of various types of
capacitors: standard; variable, trimmer and polarised
terms: Capacitance (C), Electric charge
(Q) and Energy (W)
unit of: Capacitance (Farad), Electric charge (Coulomb) and
Energy (Joule)
factors affecting capacitance (the
effective area of the plates, the distance between the plates and the type of
dielectric) and explain how these factors are present in all circuits to some
extent.
how a capacitor is charged in a d.c. circuit.
behaviour of a series d.c. circuit
containing resistance and capacitance components.  charge and discharge curves
the term ‘Time Constant’ and its relationship to the charging and
discharging of a capacitor.
calculation of quantities from given
information: Capacitance (Q = VC); Energy (W =˝CV2); Voltage (V = Q/C)
calculation one time constant as well
as the time taken to fully charge and discharge a given capacitor. (τ =
RC)
connection of a series d.c. circuit
containing capacitance and resistor to determine the time constant of the
circuit
T15 Capacitors in Series and Parallel encompassing:
hazards involved in working with
capacitance effects and the safety control measures that should be taken.
safe handling and the correct methods of discharging various
size capacitors
dangers of a charged capacitor and the
consequences of discharging a capacitor through a person
factors which determine the capacitance
of a capacitor and explain how these factors are present in all circuits to
some extent.
effects of capacitors connected in
parallel by calculating their equivalent capacitance.
effects on the total capacitance of
capacitors connected in series by calculating their equivalent capacitance.
Connecting capacitors in series and/or
parallel configurations to achieve various capacitance values.
common faults in capacitors.
testing of capacitors to determine serviceability.
application of capacitors in the
Electrotechnology industry.
Basic Electrical Fitting & Wiring 
This unit covers fixing, securing and mounting techniques as apply in
the various electrotechnology work functions. It encompasses the safe use of
hand and portable power tools, safe lifting techniques, safe use of ladders and
elevated platforms and the selection and safe application of fixing devices and
supporting accessories/equipment.
KS01EE105A Fixing and support devices/techniques
Evidence shall show an understanding of accessories and support and
fixing device and methods and their use to an extent indicated by the following
aspects:
T1. Device for securing and mounting electrical/electronic/instrumentation/refrigeration/
airconditioning/telecommunications accessories for supporting, fixing and
protecting wiring/cabling/piping and functional accessories to hollow walls
encompassing:
types and safe application of devices for hollow wall fixing
and support
methods/techniques used to fix/support
to wood, hollow wall, masonry blocks, plasterboard, panelling
types and safe application of fixing
devices used in the electrotechnology industry for wood and hollow wall
structures (wood screws, coach bolts, selftappers, self
drilling, metal thread, hollow wall anchors, behind plaster brackets,
stud brackets, plasterboard devices, toggle devices)
types of tools used for hollow wall fixing and supporting.
using various fixing methods to fix/support to hollow walls.
T2. Device for securing and mounting
electrical/electronic/instrumentation/refrigeration/
airconditioning/telecommunications accessories for supporting, fixing and
protecting wiring/cabling/piping and functional accessories to solid walls
encompassing:
types and safe application of devices
used for solid wall fixing and support
methods/techniques used in to fix to masonry and concrete
structures
fixing devices used in the
electrotechnology industry for solid wall structures (wallplugs, expanding
concrete fixing devices, gas powered fixing tools, powder actuated fixing
tools, loxins, dynabolts, chemical devices)
regulatory requirements for use of powder fixing tools.
hand and power tools used in fixing and supporting accessories
using various fixing methods to fix/support to solid walls
T3. Device for securing and mounting
electrical/electronic/instrumentation/refrigeration/
airconditioning/telecommunications accessories for supporting, fixing and
protecting wiring/cabling/piping and functional accessories to metal fixing
encompassing:
accessories that may be fixed to metal
(saddle clips, conduits, brackets, switches)
techniques for fixing to metal
fixing devices: coach bolts,
selftappers, metal thread bolts, hollow wall anchors, rivets
fixing tools  spanners, screwdrivers, power
screw drivers, pop riveters, files, reamers
OH&S issues related to drilling, cutting, eye protection,
metal filings, swarf, noise
Using power drills, drill bits, change drill speeds.
Install a fixing device and accessory
capable of supporting up to 20 kg on the metal plate.
T4. Securing and mounting
electrical/electronic/instrumentation/refrigeration/
airconditioning/telecommunications accessories for supporting, fixing and
protecting wiring/cabling/piping and functional accessories using fixing
adhesives and tapes encompassing:
types and safe application of using
adhesives and tapes as fixing devices (load limits of different commercial
products)
accessories that may be fixed using adhesives and tapes
techniques for the application of adhesives and tapes
tools used to apply and cut adhesives
and tapes
hazards and safety measures when working with
adhesives and chemical fixing devices (fumes, cutting, eye protection, physical
contact, hand protection, ingestion)
Basic Electrical Drafting 
This unit covers the use of drawings, diagrams, cable schedules,
standards, codes and specifications as they apply to the various
electrotechnology work functions. It encompasses the rudiments for
communicating with schematic, wiring and mechanical diagrams and equipment and
cable/connection schedules, manuals, site and architectural drawings and plans
showing the location of services, apparatus, plant and machinery and
understanding the use and format of compliance standards and job
specifications.
KS01EE107A Drawings, diagrams and schedules
Evidence shall show an understanding of drawings, diagrams and schedules
used in electrotechnology work to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Architectural drawings encompassing:
site plans, floor plans detailed drawings and standard drawings
architectural floor plan to determine
the power and lighting or communications / audio/ video layouts required in a
domestic installation
site plan to locate the service point,
consumers mains, communication services, main switchboard, distribution boards
and/or builders supplies.
standard drawing scales to determine
the actual lengths represented by dimensions on an architectural drawing.
reading and interpretation of floor
plans to determine the location of the electrical/ communication/audio
accessories and appliances.
Australian standard symbols used on
floor plans to show the location of the accessories
and appliances as detailed in an electrical schedule.
T2 Electrical drawings encompassing:
types of electrical drawings: block, circuit, wiring and ladder
diagrams
purpose and application of block,
circuit, wiring diagrams and ladder diagrams
Australian standard symbols used to represent components on
electrical diagrams.
conventions used in and the features of circuit diagrams
converting a circuit diagram to a wiring diagram
identification of cable type, origin
and route from a cable schedule.
developing a cable schedule for a given installation.
T3 Circuit diagrams encompassing:
purpose of circuit diagrams in the electrotechnology industry
conventions used in and the features of circuit diagrams
sketching basic circuit diagrams
common symbols used in circuit diagram (Australian Drawing
Standard AS/NZS 1102)
developing switching charts to identify the terminals of
various types of switches
connecting equipment using circuit diagrams.
T4 Wiring diagrams encompassing:
purpose of wiring diagrams in the electrotechnology industry
conventions used in and the features of wiring diagrams
sketching basic wiring diagrams
common symbols used in wiring diagram (Australian Drawing
Standard AS/NZS 1102)
connecting equipment using wiring
diagrams.
T5 Building construction drawings and diagrams encompassing:
building types: timber frame, brick veneer, double brick and
metal frame.
identification of different types of:
footings, floors, external walls, roofs, interior walls
typical cable routes through buildings, structures and premises
sequence of each constructional stage for brick, brick veneer
and timber cottages
identification of the stages at which
the electrical/communications  first and second fixing occurs in the
constructional sequence
areas of cooperation between electrical/communications and
other building trades
Electrical Equipments Safety Protection 
This unit covers the arrangement and termination of circuits, control
and protection devices and systems for electrical installations operating at
voltages up to 1,000 V a.c. or 1,500 V d.c. It encompass knowledge and
application of schemes for protection of persons and property, correct
functioning, ensuring compatibility with the supply, arranging installation
into circuits and selecting and arranging switchgear/controlgear and protective
devices to meet compliance requirements and documenting arrangement decisions
KS01EG063A Electrical installations — arrangement,
control and protection
Evidence shall show an understanding of circuit arrangements, control
and protection of electrical installations that comply with the Wiring Rules
and Service Rules to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Safety principles to which electrical systems in building and
premises shall comply.
Safety principles are given in Part1
(Section 1) of the Wiring Rules AS/NZS 3000 with deemedtocomply requirements
given in Sections 2 to 8.
Compliant methods for providing
protection  include those for providing protection against direct and indirect
contact; thermal effects; unwanted voltages; overcurrent; fault currents;
overload; overvoltage; injury from mechanical movement.
Requirements for installation design
and selection of equipment  includes compliant protection arrangements;
correct functioning; compatibility with supply; estimation of maximum demands;
voltage drop considerations; arrangement of circuits and the like
T2 Circuit and control arrangements encompassing:
reason for dividing electrical installations into circuits
factors that shall be considered in
determining the number and type of circuits required for an installation.
daily and seasonal demand for lighting
power, heating and other loads in a given installation.
number and types of circuits required for a particular
installation.
diagrams/schedules of circuits for given installations.
application and arrangements of SELV and PELV circuits
application and arrangement of an isolated supply
T3 Hazards and risks in an electrical installation encompassing:
effects on the human body of various
levels of a.c. and d.c. current and duration of current flow for various
current paths.
risk of ignition of flammable materials
due the thermal effects of current or electric
arcs in normal service of an electrical installation.
risk of injury from mechanical movement of electrically
actuated equipment.
Protection against direct contact (basic protection)
acceptable methods
use of extralow voltage
T4 Protection against indirect contact encompassing:
indirect contact with live parts of an electrical installation
may occur.
methods and devices that comply with
the Wiring Rules for providing protection against indirect contact.
components of the 'automatic
disconnection of supply' method of protection against indirect contact.
the terms ‘touch voltage’ and ‘touch current’.
the current path when a short circuit
fault to exposed conductive parts of an appliance occurs.
protection against indirect contact is
by the use of Class II equipment and by electrical separation.
additional protection by use of Residual Current Devices (RCDs)
protection against indirect contact by
use of extralow voltage and electrical separation.
Protection requirements for damp situations.
T5 Earthing encompassing:
the terms: earthed, earthed situation,
earth electrode, equipotential bonding, multiple earthed neutral (MEN) system,
protective earthneutral (PEN) conductor, main earthing conductor, protective
earthing (PE) conductor, functional earthing, MEN link.
selection of minimum sizeearthing
conductor for a range of active conductor sizes and materials.
parts of an earthing system and the purpose of each.
typical arrangement for a MEN earthing system.
arrangements of protective earthing
conductors that comply with the Wiring Rules.
requirements for equipotential bonding in a range of
installation situations.
Installation of a MEN earthing system for a single phase
installation
T6 Protection against overload and short circuit current encompassing:
overload current or fault currents in an electrical
installation.
equivalent circuit of an earth
faultloop
level of fault current possible at a
given point in an installation from the faultloop impedance and data from the
electricity distributor.
methods and devices that comply with
the Wiring Rules AS/NZS 3000 for providing protection against the damaging
effects of overload and fault current
requirements for coordination between
protective devices and conductors
requirements for coordination of protection devices for discrimination
and backup protection.
T7 Devices for automatic disconnection of supply encompassing:
operating principles of thermal/magnet circuit breakers.
operating principles of common types of fuses.
operating principles of residual
current devices (RCD).
time/current curves tripping
characteristics of various types of circuit breakers that comply with the
requirements of the Wiring Rules.
time/current curves fusing
characteristics of various types of fuses that comply with the requirements of
the Wiring Rules.
time/current curves tripping
characteristics of various types of RCDs that comply with the requirements of
the Wiring Rules.
factors in a fault loop that will affect the impedance of the
circuit.
maximum impedance of an earth
faultloop to ensure operating of a protection device.
selecting a fuse for fault current limiting protection.
drawing switchboard wiring arrangements
of 2pole RCDs, 4pole RCDs, combination RCD/MCBs.
T8 Protection against over voltage and under voltage encompassing:
causes of over voltage and how this may affect the electrical
system.
methods for protection against over voltage.
causes of under voltage and how this may affect the electrical
system.
methods for protection against under voltage.
T9 Control of an electrical installation and circuits encompassing:
switch types, current and voltage ratings and IP rating and
where these apply.
switching requirements for isolation,
emergency, mechanical maintenance and functional control.
control arrangement for complete
installations with and without safety services and an alternative supply.
T10 Switchboards / distribution boards encompassing:
Purpose, types and applications.
Physical and circuit arrangements for
whole current and CT metering.
Physical and circuit arrangements of
main switches, circuit protection devices, faultcurrent limiters and metering
equipment and other distributor equipment.
compliance requirements (includes
location and access, arc fault protection, identification, construction
suitability, equipment marking, wiring, fire protection and arcfault
protection).
Electrical Installation Design 
This unit covers selecting wiring systems and cables for electrical
installations operating at voltages up to 1,000V a.c. or 1,500 V d.c. It
encompass knowledge and application of wiring systems and cable types,
selecting wiring system compatible with the installation conditions, selecting
cables that comply with required currentcarrying capacity and voltage drop and
earth faultloop impedance limitations, coordination between protective devices
and conductors and documenting selection decisions
KS01EG107A Electrical installation — cable
selection and coordination
Evidence shall show an understanding of selecting cables and ensuring
coordination between protection device and conductors in electrical
installations that comply with the Wiring Rules, Selection of cables standards
and Service Rules to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Performance requirements  design and safety encompassing:
harmful effects against which the
design of an electrical installation must provide protection.
performance standards of a correctly functioning electrical
installation.
supply characteristics that shall be considered when designing
an electrical installation.
acceptable methods for determining the
maximum demand in consumer's mains and submains.
AS/NZS 3000 requirements limiting voltage drop in an
installation.
reason for dividing electrical
installations into circuits and the factors that shall determine their number
and type.
typical external factors that may
damage an electrical installation and that shall be considered in the
installation design.
methods for protecting persons and
livestock against direct and indirect contact with conductive parts and the
typical application of each.
acceptable methods of protection
against the risks of ignition of flammable materials and injury by burns from
the thermal effects of current, in normal service.
likely sources of unwanted voltages and
the methods for dealing with this potential hazard.
acceptable methods for protecting
persons and livestock against injury and property against damage from the
effects of over current.
requirement for protection against fault current.
requirement for protection against the
harmful effects of faults between live parts of circuits supplied at different
voltages.
need for protection against injury from
mechanical movement and how this may be achieved.
features of 'fire rated construction'
and how the integrity of the fire rating can be maintained in relation to
electrical installation.
T2 Final subcircuit arrangements encompassing:
factors that shall be considered in determining the number and
type of circuits required
for an installation.
daily and seasonal demand for lighting,
power, heating and other loads in a given installation.
number and types of circuits required or a particular
installation.
current requirements for given final subcircuits.
layout/schedule of circuits for given installations.
T3 Factors affecting the suitability of wiring systems encompassing:
wiring systems typically used with
various construction methods and particular environments.
installation conditions that may affect
the currentcarrying capacity of cables.
external influences that may affect the
currentcarrying capacity and/or may cause damage to the wiring system.
AS/NZS 3000 requirements for selecting
wiring systems for a range of circuits, installation conditions and
construction methods into which the wiring system is to be installed. Note:
Wiring systems include cable enclosures, underground wiring, aerial wiring,
catenary support, emergency systems, busbar trunking and earth sheath return.
T4 Maximum demand on consumer’s mains/submains encompassing:
acceptable methods for determining the
maximum demand on an installation’s consumer’s mains and submains.
maximum demand for the consumer's mains
for given installations up to 400 A per phase.
maximum demand for given submains.
T5 Cable selection based on current carrying capacity requirements
encompassing:
installation conditions for a range of
wiring systems and applications.
external influences that require the use of a derating factor.
AS/NZS 3000 requirements for coordination of cables and
protection devices.
AS/NZS 3008 used to select conductor
size based on the maximum current requirement for a given installation
condition including any applicable derating factors.
T6 Cable selection based on voltage drop requirements encompassing:
AS/NZS 3000 requirements for maximum voltage drop in an
installation.
relevant tables in AS/NZS 3008 for unit
values of voltage drop.
calculation of the expected voltage drop in a given circuit.
selecting cables to satisfy voltage
drop requirements in addition to current carrying capacity requirements.
T7 Cable selection based on fault loop impedance requirements
encompassing:
AS/NZS 3000 requirements for maximum fault loop impedance in an
installation.
relevant tables in AS/NZS 3008 to determine cable impedances.
calculation of the expected fault loop
impedance for a given circuit arrangement.
selecting cables to satisfy fault loop impedance requirements
in addition to current
carrying capacity requirements and voltage drop requirements.
T8 Selecting protection devices encompassing:
acceptable methods of protection against
indirect contact.
AS/NZS 3000 requirements for selecting
methods and devices to protect against indirect contact for a range of
installation types and conditions.
coordination between conductors and
protection devices to ensures the protection of cables from over heating due to
over current.
possible injuries to persons and livestock from hazards due to
a short circuit.
AS/NZS 3000 requirements for selecting
devices to protect against overload current for a range of circuits and loads.
AS/NZS 3000 requirements for selecting
devices to protect against shortcircuit current for a range of installation
conditions.
T9 Selecting devices for isolation and switching encompassing:
requirements for the provision of the
isolation of every circuit in an electrical installation.
need for protection against mechanical movement of electrically
activated equipment.
AS/NZS 3000 requirements for selecting
devices for isolation and switching for a range of installations and
conditions.
T10 Switchboards encompassing:
AS/NZS 3000 and local supply authority requirements for
switchboards.
tariff structures for the supply of electricity.
equipment installed at the main switchboards with capacities up
to 400 A per phase.
layout of a main switchboard for an
installation supplied with single phase single tariff whole current metering.
layout of a main switchboard for an
installation supplied with single phase multiple tariff whole current metering.
layout of a main switchboard for an
installation supplied with multiphase single tariff whole current metering.
layout of a main switchboard for an
installation supplied with multiphase multiple tariff whole current metering.
layout of a main switchboard for a
multiple tenancy installation with whole current metering.
layout of a main switchboard, including
metering, for an installation supplied with three phase CT metering.
local supply authority requirements for
connection of an electrical installation to the electrical supply system
Advanced Electrical Wiring 
This unit covers the installation in building and premises of wiring
enclosures, cable support systems, cables and accessories and designed to
operate at voltages up to 1,000 V a.c. or 1,500 V d.c. It encompasses working
safely and to installation standards, routing cables to specified locations,
terminating cables and connecting wiring at accessories and completing the
necessary installation documentation.
KS01EG103A Installation of wiring systems
Evidence shall
show an understanding of the installation of wiring systems that comply with
standards to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Standards, codes and requirements applicable to the installation of
wiring systems encompassing:
Cables and methods of mechanical protection and support
Protection against and from other services.
Prohibited cable locations
Building codes affecting the
installation of cables in buildings, structures and premises (limitation on
penetration of structural elements, maintenance of fire protection integrity,
and wiring above suspected ceilings)
Issues affecting electrical
installations in heritage buildings and premises (limitation on penetration of
structural and finished elements, accessing cable routes, types and colour of
exposed accessories).
T2 Use of other installation standards called up by the Wiring Rules for
special situations encompassing:
standards that apply to Electromedical treatment areas.
additional requirements for
construction and demolition sites.
Relocatable installations and their site supply
additional requirements for caravan park.
additional requirements for marinas and pleasure craft at low
voltage.
additional requirements for shows and carnivals.
T3 Hazardous areas encompassing:
Conditions that apply in an areas that
require them to be classified as a ‘Hazardous area’.
Responsibility for classifying a hazardous area
Awareness of standards called up by the
Wiring Rules for selection of equipment and installations in Hazardous areas.
(AS/NZS 3000 requirements for hazardous areas).
T4 Requirement for the installation of cables and accessories in damp
situations and ELV installations encompassing:
restricted zones around baths, showers,
fixed water containers, pools, sauna heaters and fountains/water features for
given installations.
selecting equipment suitable for installation in given damp
situations.
voltage range that defines extralow
voltage.
'Separated extralow voltage (SELV)
system' and a 'Protected extralow voltage (PELV) system".
AS/NZS 3000 requirements for selecting
extralow voltage systems and devices for a range of installations and
conditions.
T5 Aerial cabling encompassing:
Describe the types of aerial cabling.
State the AS/NZS 3000 and local supply
authority requirements for aerial cabling.
Termination of aerial cables in accordance with AS/NZS 3000 and
local requirements.
installation of consumers mains for connection via overhead
consumers terminals in
ccordance with AS/NZS 3000 and local requirements.
Testing of installed cables compliance with Australian
Standards
T6 Underground cabling encompassing:
Describe permissible underground cabling systems.
Identify other underground services.
State the AS/NZS 3000 and local supply
authority requirements for underground cabling.
List the advantages and disadvantages of underground wiring
systems
selection of underground consumers
mains in accordance with AS/NZS 3000 and local requirements
T7 Techniques for installing cables and wiring systems encompassing:
Typical cable routes through buildings, structures and
premises.
Application of wiring accessories
Drawingin, placing and fixing of
cables
Cable and conductor terminations
Maintaining fire rating integrity.
Inspecting and testing installed and
terminated cables to ensure they comply with continuity and insulation
resistance and are safe to connect to the supply.
Electrical Equipments 
This unit covers the installation of appliances protection devices,
switchgear, controlgear, switchboards, and accessories designed to operate at
voltages up to 1,000 V a.c. or 1,500 V d.c. It encompasses working safely and
to installation standards, matching appliances and accessories with that
specified, making required circuit connections and completing the necessary
installation documentation.
vidence shall show an understanding of the installation of appliances
(currentusing equipment) and accessories to an extent indicated by the
following aspects:
T1 Installation standards, codes and requirements applicable to
installing electrical equipment encompassing.
Protection against thermal effects
Connection of electrical equipment
(appliances, switchgear and accessories include switchgear and controlgear,
switchboards, socketoutlets, lighting equipment and accessories, lamps and
luminaires, smoke and fire detectors, cooking appliances, appliances producing
hot water or steam, room heaters, electric heating cables for floors and
ceilings, space heating, duct heaters, electricity converters, motors,
transformers, capacitors, and batteries).
Required and permitted locations
currentusing equipment and accessories
Control, switching and over current and RCD protection
T2 Terminal configuration for connection of phase, neutral and
protective earthing conductors for each type of equipment.
T3 Building codes affecting the installation of currentusing equipment
and accessories in buildings, structures and premises encompassing:
maintenance of fire protection
integrity, requirements for emergency services (safety services) and the like.
T4 Issues affecting electrical installations in heritage buildings and
premises encompassing:
limitation on types and colour of exposed accessories.
Electrical Fault Finding 
This unit covers troubleshooting and repairing faults in electrical
apparatus and interconnecting circuits and equipment operating at voltages up
to 1,000 V a.c. or 1,500 V d.c. It encompasses working safely, reading circuit
diagrams, sketching diagrams from traced wiring, logically applying fault
finding procedures, conducting repairs and completing the necessary service
documentation.
KS01EG108A Electrical circuit and equipment faults
and fault finding techniques
Evidence shall show an understanding of electrical circuit and equipment
faults and fault finding techniques to an extent indicated by the following
aspects:
T1 Troubleshooting concepts encompassing:
need to understand the correct
operation of a circuit or equipment, switching and control circuit
arrangements.
common faults with circuits and
equipment including operator faults, incorrect connections, opencircuits,
shortcircuits, device faults (mechanical), supply faults.
typical faults symptoms and their
causes: operation of circuit protective device, appliance does not operate,
single phase motor does not develop enough torque to drive the load, three
phase motor does not develop enough torque to drive the load, motor overload
trips
factors to consider in clarifying the
nature of a fault: initial fault report, confirmation of
symptoms of the fault, comparison of symptoms with normal operation
effect to cause reasoning — assumptions
of possible causes
methods for testing assumptions: visual
inspection, component isolation, test equipment, sectional testing, splithalf
tests
repairing the fault and the steps
needed to ensure fault doesn’t reoccur
dealing with intermittent faults
(typical causes of intermittent faults are vibration, shock, changes in
temperature and electromagnetic interference).
final testing and re commissioning
T2 Troubleshooting water heater and appliance circuits/equipment
encompassing:
circuit diagrams of common single phase and three phase hot
water systems
single phase and three phase element
resistance values (determined from measurement and calculation from power and
voltage ratings)
testing single and three phase elements for correct insulation
resistance and continuity
element replacement techniques
operation of thermostats, thermal
cutouts and pressure relief valves, flow switches and checking sacrificial
anodes
locating faults in common single and three phase hot water
systems
repairing faulty water heating systems
T3 Troubleshooting electrical appliance circuits/equipment encompassing:
circuit diagrams of common single phase and three phase
appliances
methods to determine the cause of an RCD operation
identification of appliances that is causing an RCD to trip
testing single and three phase
appliances for correct insulation resistance and continuity
operation of appliances controls
locating faults in common single and three phase appliances
repairing faulty appliances
T4 Troubleshooting lighting circuits encompassing:
circuit and wiring diagrams of common
lighting circuits including single light controlled by a single switch,
multiple lights controlled by a single switch, two and three way switching
using the loop at the light method and the loop at the switch method.
causes of wiring faults from supplied
symptoms and circuit and/or wiring diagrams
causes of faults in ELV lighting
devices, include transformer (iron core or electronic), voltage drop, heat,
overvoltage, poor connections, incompatible dimmers
diagrams of a basic fluorescent light
circuit including lamp, ballast and starter
locating faults in fluorescent light circuits
operation of a range of lighting
control including passive infrared (PIR), dimmers, photo electric or daylight
switches and time clocks
locating faults in lighting control circuits
T5
Troubleshooting single phase motor and control circuits encompassing:
circuit diagrams of split phase, capacitor start, capacitor start
capacitor run, universal and shaded pole single phase motors
causes of single phase motor faults
from supplied symptoms and circuit diagrams
causes of electrical faults in single
phase motors, include open and partially open circuit winding, short and
partially short circuit winding, open circuit rotor, burnt out winding, coil
shorted to frame.
reasons for a thermal overload trip and
how often they are to be reset before investigating a cause
internal mechanical faults and their
consequences, include bearings, fans, bent shaft, locked rotor, blocked air
vents, centrifugal switches, environmental factors
faults on driven loads and couplings
and their consequences, include slipping belts, poorly aligned coupling
(shims), vibration, loads bearing failing, load stalling.
locating faults in single phase motors and their controls
T6 Troubleshooting three phase induction motor encompassing:
circuit diagrams of three phase induction motors
causes of three phase motor faults from supplied symptoms and
circuit diagrams
causes of electrical faults in three
phase motors, include open and partially open circuit phase winding, short and
partially short circuit phase winding, open circuit rotor, burnt out phase
winding, coil shorted to frame.
reasons for a thermal overload trip and
how often they are to be reset before investigating a cause
internal mechanical faults and their consequences,
include bearings, fans, bent shaft, locked rotor, blocked air vents,
environmental factors.
faults on driven loads and couplings
and their consequences, include slipping belts, poorly aligned coupling
(shims), vibration, loads bearing failing, load stalling.
locating faults in three phase induction motors and their
controls
T7 Troubleshooting electrical installations encompassing:
circuit diagrams, wiring diagrams,
cable schedules and specifications of electrical installations
causes of electrical installation
faults from supplied symptoms and circuit diagrams include open and partially
open circuit wiring, short and partially short circuit wiring, low insulation
resistance, incorrect polarity, transposition of conductors, RCD tripping.
locating faults in electrical
installations
repairing faulty electrical installation circuits components
and wiring.
Electrical Control Circuits 
This unit covers developing, connecting and functionally testing
electrical power and control circuits that perform specific control functions.
It encompasses working safely; developing schematic/ladder diagrams and
converting them to wiring diagrams; selecting and connecting contactors and
control devices to perform a specific function.
KS01EG109A Electrical control devices and circuits
Evidence shall show an understanding of electrical control devices and
circuits to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Basic relay circuits encompassing:
Identification of given circuit
diagrams (schematic) symbols and explain the operation of the components
represented
labelling wires and terminal (numbering
systems)
control relay  operating principles,
basic contact configurations and identification and common applications
push button  switching configurations
and common applications
selecting pushbuttons/pilot lamps from
manufacturer’s catalogues for specific applications
development of simple stopstart relay
circuit that incorporates pilot lights and latching circuit.
connection and testing of control circuits
T2 Relay circuits and drawing conventions encompassing:
circuit diagram drawing conventions
selecting relays from manufacturers’ catalogue for specified
applications
circuit development of electrical
control circuit in accordance with a written description (specification) and
list the sequence of operation of the circuit
connecting simple electrical control
circuit from circuit diagrams
applying safe working practices when testing an electrical
control circuit
T3 Remote STOPSTART control and electrical interlocking encompassing:
operation of local and remote
startstop control of relays
operation of an electrically
interlocked relay circuit
development of a relay circuit
incorporating local and remote start and stop buttons and electrical
interlocking.
connecting electrical circuits with
local and remote startstop control and with electrical interlocking.
applying circuit checking and testing techniques to an
electrical control circuit.
T4 Time delay relays encompassing:
timers  operating principles, basic
contact configurations and identification and common applications
selecting timers for specified
functions from manufactures’ catalogues
development of timer controlled
circuits from a written description and list the sequence of circuit operation
connecting a timer controlled circuit using a circuit diagram
as a guide.
timer circuit checking and testing
procedures.
T5 Circuits using contactors encompassing:
contactors  operating principles,
basic contact configurations and identification and common applications
thermal overloads  operating
principles, basic contact configurations and identification and common applications
circuit diagram symbols
circuit development using a contactor
using contactors for motor control.
compliance requirements for devices for isolating circuits.
T6 Jogging and interlocking encompassing:
purpose and application of jogging
control of motors
operation of motor control using start, stop and jog buttons
purpose and application of electrical/mechanical interlocking
developing a multiple motor starting
circuit from a description of the circuit operation including jog and interlock
functions.
selecting circuit components using manufacturers’ catalogues
for appropriate duty
ratings
connecting and testing a multiple motor
starting circuit which incorporates start, stop and jog control.
T7 Control devices encompassing:
common control devices used in
automatic control circuits: limit switches, proximity switches, photoelectric
cells, pressure switches, float switches, light sensors and temperature sensors
basic operating principles of common control devices
advantages and disadvantages of common
control devices
applications for common control devices
selecting control devices using manufacturers’ catalogues for
specified applications
connection of control devices into control circuits
T8 Programmable relays encompassing:
programmable relays  advantages over
electromagnetic relay circuit control.
typical applications of programmable relays.
block diagram representation and basic operating principles
input and output parameters, listing, connections and output
types.
connecting input and output devices to
a programmable relay using a diagram
basic programming of ladder circuits
consisting of inputs, outputs i.e. stopstart circuit
using the monitoring facility of the
programmable relay to verify each ladder circuit operation.
programming timers and using the
monitoring facility of the programmable relay to check the values of the timer
external devices
implications of programming normally closed field devices
conversion of control circuits
installation of programmable control
relays
common faults and their symptoms
T9 Threephase induction motor starters encompassing:
reasons for limiting the starting current of large motors.
requirements of the wiring rules
(AS/NZS 3000) and the local supply authority service rules, with regard to
starting and control of induction motors.
DOL starter operating principles, applications and circuits
electronic (soft) starter operating principles, applications
and circuits
connecting a DOL motor starter and
testing the operation of the power and control circuits
installation of DOL and soft starters
T10 Threephase induction motor starters reduced voltage encompassing:
stardelta starter operating principles
and circuits
primary
resistance starter operating principles and circuits
· autotransformer starter operating principles and
circuits
secondary resistance starter operating principles and circuits
common applications for each starter type
comparison of motor starters basic characteristics
selecting the most suitable motor
starter for a given situation
connecting motor starter power and control circuits for correct
operation
measuring starting current and torque of selected motor starters
installation of reduced voltage starters
T11 Threephase induction motor reversal and braking encompassing:
reversing operating principles and control circuits
plug braking operating principles and circuits
dynamic braking operating principles and circuits
regenerative braking operating principles and circuits
eddy current brakes operating principles and circuits
mechanical brakes operating principles and circuits
comparison of the difference braking methods used.
typical applications for each braking method.
connecting a circuit with a braking
feature to operate a threephase motor.
installation of motor braking control
circuits
T12 Threephase induction motor speed control encompassing:
pole changing operating principles and circuits
variable frequency drives operating principles and circuits
slipring motors operating principles
and circuits
installation of motor speed
controllers.
Computer Applications 
This unit covers the basic use of personal computers application
relevant to a work function. It encompasses switching the computer on, applying
user preferences, selecting basic applications, entering and retrieving
information and printing files.
KS01ED101A Basic Computer Applications
Evidence shall show an understanding of computer use basics to an extent
indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Starting up
T2 Selecting application
T3 Entering information
T4 Saving
T5 Printing
Electromagnetism & Basic Electrical Machines 
This unit covers determining correct operation of electromagnetic
devices and related circuits and providing solutions as they apply to
electrical installations and equipment. It encompasses working safely, power
circuit problems solving processes, including the use of voltage, current and
resistance measuring devices, providing solutions derived from measurements and
calculations to predictable problems in electromagnetic devices and related
circuits
KS01EG101A Electromagnetic devices and circuits
Evidence shall show an understanding of electromagnetic devices and
circuits to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Magnetism encompassing:
magnetic field pattern of bar and
horseshoe magnets.
magnets attraction and repulsion when brought in contact with
each other.
common magnetic and nonmagnetic
materials and groupings (diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic
materials).
principle of magnetic screening (shielding) and its
applications.
practical applications of magnets
construction, operation and applications of reed switches.
T2 Electromagnetism encompassing:
conventions representing direction of current flow in a
conductor.
magnetic field pattern around a single conductor and two
adjacent conductors
carrying current.
Using the “right hand rule” to
determine the direction of magnetic field around a current carrying conductor.
direction of force between adjacent current carrying
conductors.
effect of current, length and distance
apart on the force between conductors (including forces on bus bars during
fault conditions).
magnetic field around an electromagnet.
Using the “right hand rule” to
determine the direction of magnetic field around a current carrying coil.
magnetomotive force (m.m.f.) and its
relationship to the number of turns in a coil and the current flowing in the
coil.
practical applications of
electromagnets.
T3 Magnetic circuits encompassing:
magnetic characteristic curve for various materials and
identify the various regions.
Identify the various conditions of a magnetic material from its
Hysteresis loop.
factors which determine losses in
magnetic material.
methods used to reduce electrical losses in a magnetic circuit.
magnetic flux (definition, unit and symbol).
reluctance as the opposition to the establishment of magnetic
flux.
permeability (definition, symbol and unit).
difference for magnetic and
nonmagnetic materials in regards to reluctance and permeability.
calculation of m.m.f., flux or reluctance given any two values.
flux density (definition, symbol, unit and calculation).
magnetising force (definition, symbol,
unit and calculation).
common magnetic circuit types.
effect of an air gap in a magnetic circuit.
terms “magnetic leakage” and “magnetic fringing”.
T4 Electromagnetic induction encompassing:
principle of electromagnetic induction
(Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction).
applying “Fleming’s right hand rule” to
a current a carrying conductor under the influence of a magnetic field.
calculation of induced e.m.f. in a
conductor given the conductor length, flux density and velocity of the
conductor.
calculation of induced e.m.f. in a coil
given the number of turns in a coil and the rate of change of flux.
calculation of force on a conductor
given the flux density of the magnetic field, length of the conductor and the
current being carried by the conductor.
Lenz’s law
applications of electromagnetic induction
T5 Inductance encompassing:
construction of an inductor, including a bifilar winding
inductor.
Australian Standard circuit diagram symbol for the four types
of inductor.
effect of physical parameters on the
inductance of an inductor.
common types of inductor cores.
applications of the different types of inductors.
definition of terms self induction, inductance and mutual
inductance.
calculation of value of self induced e.m.f. in a coil.
mutual induction occurs between two
coils.
graphical relationship between load
voltage, current and self induced e.m.f. in a single d.c. circuit having
inductance.
practical applications for the effects of self and mutual
induction.
undesirable effects of self and mutual induction.
definition of term “time constant” and
draw the characteristic curve as applied to a series circuit containing an
inductor and a resistor. (LR circuit)Calculation of value of the time constant
for an LR circuit given the values of the components.
time constants required for the current
in an LR circuit to reach its final value.
determining of instantaneous values of
voltage and current in an LR circuit using a universal time constant chart.
T6 Measurement Instruments encompassing:
moving coil, moving iron, dynamometer
meter movements and clamp testers.
practical applications for moving coil,
moving iron and dynamometer meter movements.
Calculation of resistance of shunts and
multipliers to extend the range of ammeters and voltmeters.
factors to be considered in selecting
meters for a particular application.
safety category of meters and their associated applications.
steps and procedures for the safe use, care and storage of
electrical instruments.
T7 Magnetic devices encompassing:
construction, operation and
applications of relays.
construction, operation and applications of contactors.
magnetic methods used to extinguish the arc between opening
contacts.
construction, operation and applications of Hall Effect
devices.
operation and applications of
magnetostriction equipment.
construction, operation and application of magnetic sensing
devices.
T8 Machine principles encompassing:
basic operating principle of a generator.
applying Fleming’s right hand rule for generators.
basic operating principle of a motor.
applying
Fleming’s left hand rule for motors.
· calculation
of force and torque developed by a motor.
T9 Rotating machine construction, testing and maintenance encompassing:
components of a d.c. machine.
difference between a generator and a
motor in terms of energy conversion.
nameplate of a machine.
using electrical equipment to make
electrical measurements and comparison of readings with nameplate ratings.
Identification of faults in a machine from electrical
measurements.
care and maintenance processes for
rotating machines
safety risks associated with using rotating machinery.
T10 Generators encompassing:
basic operation of a d.c generator.
calculation of generated and terminal voltage of a d.c. shunt
generator
prime movers, energy sources and energy
flow used to generate electricity.
types of d.c. generators and their applications.
methods of excitation used for d.c generators.
equivalent circuit for a d.c. generator.
importance of residual magnetism for a self excited generator.
open circuit characteristics of d.c.
generators.
load characteristics of a d.c generator.
reversing the polarity of a d.c. generator
Connect and test a d.c generator on
noload and load
Identify safety risks associated with using generators.
T11 Motors encompassing:
operation of a motor and its energy
flow.
effect of back e.m.f. in d.c. motors
torque as the product of the force on
the conductors and the radius of the armature/rotor.
types of d.c. motors and their applications.
circuit diagrams for the types of d.c. motors.
equivalent circuit for the types of
d.c. motors.
calculation of power output of a motor.
characteristics of the different types of d.c. motors.
connection and testing a d.c. shunt
motor on noload and load
reversing the direction of rotation of a d.c. motor.
safety risks associated with using motors (include risks of
series d.c. motors).
T12 Machine efficiency encompassing:
losses that occur in a d.c machine.
methods used
to determine the losses in a d.c. machine.
· calculation of losses and efficiency of a d.c
machine.
efficiency characteristic of a d.c. machine and the conditions
for maximum efficiency.
application of Minimum Energy Performance standards (MEPS).
methods used to maintain high efficiency.
Alternating Current Principle 
This unit covers ascertaining correct operation of single and three
phase a.c. circuits and solving circuit problems as they apply to servicing,
fault finding, installation and compliance work functions. It encompasses safe
working practices, multiphase circuit arrangements, issues related to
protection, power factor and MEN systems and solutions to circuit problems
derived from calculated and measured parameters.
KS01EG102A Alternating current power circuits
Evidence shall show an understanding of alternating currents power
circuits to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Alternating Current Quantities encompassing:
sine, cosine and tangent ratios of a right angle triangle
Pythagoras Theorem to a right angle triangle.
use of the CRO to measure d.c. and a.c. voltage levels
sinusoidal voltage generated by a
single turn coil rotated in a uniform magnetic fields
terms 'period', 'maximum value', 'peaktopeak value', 'instantaneous
value', 'average value', 'rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) value', in relation to a
sinusoidal waveform.
calculation of the instantaneous value
of induced voltage of a generated sinusoidal waveform.
measurement of instantaneous, peak,
peaktopeak values and the period of a sinusoidal waveform.
calculation of rootmeansquare
(r.m.s.) value and frequency of a sinusoidal waveform from values of peak
voltage and period.
T2 Phasors Diagrams encompassing:
purpose of phasor diagrams
'inphase', 'outofphase', 'phase
angle'' lead' and 'lag'.
phase angle between two or more
alternating quantities from a given sinusoidal waveform diagram.
convention for representing voltage, current
and the reference quantity in a phasor diagram.
drawing phasor diagrams to show the
relationship between two or more a.c. values of voltage and/or current.
determination of phase relationship
between two or more sinusoidal waveforms from a given diagram and measurements.
T3 Single Element a.c. circuits encompassing:
setting up and connect a singlesource
resistive a.c. circuit and take voltage and current measurements to determine
the resistance
determining the voltage, current
resistances from measure of given values of any tow of these qualities.
relationship between voltage drops and current in resistive
a.c. circuit
applications of resistive a.c. circuits
defining ‘inductive reactance’.
calculation of inductive reactance for
a given inductor and the relationship between inductive reactance and
frequency.
applying Ohm’s Law to determine
voltage, current of inductive reactance in a purely inductive a.c. circuit
given any two to these quantities.
applications of inductive a.c circuits.
calculation of capacitive reactance
applying Ohm’s Law to determine
voltage, current or capacitive reactance in a purely capacitive a.c circuit
given any two of the quantities.
applications of capacitive a.c circuits
T4 RC and RL Series a.c. circuits encompassing:
impedance and impedance triangle.
determining the impedance, current and
voltages for a series RC circuit given the resistance, capacitance and supply
voltage.
drawing and labelling the impedance triangle for a series RC
circuit
drawing
phasor diagrams for a series RC circuit
· AS/NZS 3000
requirements for the installation of capacitors.
· examples of capacitive components in power circuits
and systems and the effect on the phase relationship between voltage and
current.
determining the impedance, current and
voltages for a series RL circuit given the resistance, inductance and supply
voltage.
drawing and labelling the impedance triangle for a series RL
circuit
drawing the equivalent circuit of a practical inductor
Draw phasor diagrams for a series RL circuit.
examples of inductive components in
power circuits and systems and describe their effect on the phase relationship
between voltage and current
T5 RLC Series a.c. circuits encompassing:
measuring component voltages in a
series RLC circuit and using a phasor diagram to determine the supply voltage
and phase angle between circuit voltage and circuit current.
determining the impedance, current and
voltages for a series RLC circuit given resistance, inductance, capacitance and
supply voltage.
drawing and labelling the impedance
triangle for a series RLC circuit.
calculation of total impedance for a series RLC circuit.
calculation of voltage drop for cables
using the values for reactance and a.c. resistance from AS/NZS 3008.
comparison of current limiting
characteristics of inductors and resistors.
practical examples of RLC series circuits
T6 Parallel a.c. Circuits encompassing:
determining the branch currents of a
parallel circuit that contain RL, RC or LC in two branches.
using a phasor diagram to determine the
total circuit current and phase angle in parallel RL, RC or LC circuits.
determining the total circuit impedance of parallel RL, RC or
LC circuits.
measuring the branch currents in a
parallel RLC circuit and use a phasor diagram to determine the total current
and phase angle between circuit voltage and circuit current.
determining the branch impedances,
branch currents and phase angles voltages for a parallel RLC circuit given
resistance, inductance, capacitance and supply voltage.
calculation of impedance for a parallel
RLC circuit.
practical examples of parallel circuits.
T7 Power in an a.c. circuit encompassing:
difference between true power, apparent
power and reactive power and the units in which these quantities are measured.
drawing the power triangle to show the
relationships between true power, apparent power and reactive power
defining the term "power factor" and phase angle.
methods used to measure single phase power, energy and demand.
T8 Power Factor Improvement encompassing:
effects of low power factor.
requirements for power factor
improvement.
methods used to improve low power factor of an installation.
local supply authority and AS/NZS 3000
wiring rules requirements regarding the power factor of an installation and
power factor improvement equipment.
methods used to measure single phase
power factor.
using manufacturers catalogues to
select power factor equipment for a particular installation
T9 Harmonics and Resonance Effect in a.c. Systems encompassing:
term "harmonic" in relation
to the sinusoidal waveform of an a.c. power system.
sources in a.c. systems that produce harmonics.
problems that may arise in a.c.
circuits as a result of harmonics and how these are overcome.
methods and test equipment used to test for harmonics
methods used to reduce harmonics in
a.c. power system
conditions in a series a.c. circuit that produce resonance.
dangers of series resonance circuits
conditions in a parallel a.c. circuit that produce resonance.
dangers of parallel resonance circuits
AS/NZS3000 and the local supply
authority requirements concerning harmonics and resonance effect in a.c. power
systems.
T10 Three Phase Systems encompassing:
features of a multiphase system.
comparison of voltages generated by single and multiphase
alternators.
reasons for the adoption of three
phases for power systems.
how three phases is generated in a single alternator.
Calculation of r.m.s. value of voltage
generated in each phase given the maximum value.
relationship between the phase voltages
generated in a three phase alternator and the conventions for identifying each.
term "phase sequence" (also, referred to as
"phase rotation").
determining the phase sequence of a three phase supply
T11 Three phase starconnections encompassing:
connecting a three phase
starconnection load.
phase relationship between line and phase
voltages and line and phase currents of a starconnected system.
determining the r.m.s. value of line and phase voltage given
any one of these quantities.
determining the r.m.s. value of line and phase current given any one of
these quantities.
terms "balanced load" and "unbalanced
load".
effect of a reversed phase winding of a star connected
alternator.
example of balanced and unbalanced loads in typical power
systems.
T12 Three phase four wire systems encompassing:
purpose of the neutral conductor in a
three phase four wire systems.
determining the effects of an high
impedance in the neutral conductor of a three phase four wire system supplying
an unbalanced load where MEN earthing is employed.
determining the value and phase relationship
of neutral current in an unbalanced three phase four wire systems given line
currents and power factors.
AS/NZS 3000 requirements regarding neutral conductors.
AS/NZS 3008.1.1 method for determining
voltage drop in unbalanced three phase circuits
T13 Three phase deltaconnections and Interconnected systems
encompassing:
connecting three phase delta loads.
phase relationship between line and
phase voltages and line and phase currents of a deltaconnected system.
determining the r.m.s. value of line
and phase voltage given any one of these quantities.
determining the r.m.s. value of line and phase current given
any one of these quantities.
limitations and uses of open delta connections
effect of a reversed phase winding of a
delta connected transformer
example of loads in typical power systems.
drawing the typical combinations of
three phase interconnected systems using starconnections and a
deltaconnection.
relationship between line and phase
voltages and line and phase currents in the typical interconnected systems
using starconnections and deltaconnections.
T14 Energy and power requirements of a.c. systems encompassing:
purposes for measuring power, energy,
power factor and maximum demand of a.c. power systems and loads.
difference between true power, apparent
power and reactive power and the units in which these quantities are measured
in a three phase system.
drawing the power triangle to show the
relationships between true power, apparent power and reactive power in a three
phase system.
methods used to measure three phase power , energy, power
factor and demand.
determining how the power factor of a three phase installation
can be improved.
using manufacturers catalogues to
select measurement equipment for a particular installation
T15 Fault Loop Impedance encompassing:
term fault loop impedance of a a.c. power system
determining fault loop impedance using resistance and reactance
values from AS/NZS
3008.1.1
measuring fault loop impedance of typical circuits
procedures for testing fault loop
impedance
Electrical Fundamental 
This unit covers the application of calculations required to solve
electrotechnical engineering problems. It encompasses working safely, applying
problem solving techniques, using a range of mathematical processes and
techniques to providing solutions to electrotechnical problems, and justifying
such solutions.
Note.
Typical electrotechnical problems are those encountered in meeting requirements in meeting performance requirements and compliance standards, revising systems operating parameters and dealing with system malfunctions
This unit covers ascertaining correct operation of single and three
phase machines and solving machine problems as they apply to servicing, fault
finding, installation and compliance work functions. It encompasses safe
working practices, machine connections circuit arrangements, issues related to
machine operation, characteristics and protection and solutions to machine
problems derived from calculated and measured parameters.
Evidence shall show an understanding of
electrotechnical principles to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Resistance encompassing:
relationship between voltage, current
and resistance and the power dissipated in a circuit
value of voltage, current and
resistance in a circuit given any two of these quantities
the factors of length, crosssectional
area and material effect the resistance of conductors
effects of temperature change on the resistance of various
conducting materials
features of fixed and variable resistor
types and typical applications
characteristics of temperature, voltage
and light dependent resistors and typical applications of each
T2 Series circuits encompassing:
measurement of resistance, voltage and
current values in a single source series circuit
the voltage, current, resistances or
power dissipated from measured or given values of any two of these quantities
relationship between the voltage drops around a circuit and the
applied voltage
T3 Parallel circuits encompassing:
measurement of resistance, voltage and
current values in a singlesource parallel circuit
the voltage, current, resistance or
power dissipated from measured or given values of any of these quantities
relationship between currents entering
a junction and currents leaving a junction
T4 Series/parallel circuits encompassing:
measurement of resistance, voltage and
current values in a singlesource series / parallel circuit
the voltage, current, resistances or
power dissipated from measured or given values of any two of these quantities
T5 Measurement of electrical quantities encompassing:
operating characteristics of analogue and digital meters
selecting an appropriate meter in terms
of units to be measured, range, loading effect and accuracy for a given
application
T6 Capacitance/Capacitors encompassing:
definition of capacitance and explain how a capacitor is
charged
the units by which capacitance is measured
relationship between capacitance, voltage and charge
behaviour of a series d.c. circuit
containing resistance and capacitance components
factors which determine the capacitance
of a capacitor and explain how these factors are present in all circuits to
some extent
T7 Magnetism and electromagnetism encompassing:
field patterns around given permanent magnets
magnetic field patterns around a
straight current carrying conductor and a solenoid
direction in which the magnetic field around a straight current
carrying conductor
T8 Electromagnetic induction encompassing:
factors required to induce an emf in a conductor
T9 Sinusoidal alternating voltage and current encompassing:
how a sinusoidal voltage is generated
in a single turn coil rotated in a uniform magnetic field
definition of the terms ‘period’,
‘maximum value’, ‘peaktopeak value’, ‘instantaneous value’, ‘average value’
and ‘rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) value’ in relation to a sinusoidal waveform
instantaneous value of induced voltage of a generated
sinusoidal waveform
rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) value and
frequency of a sinusoidal waveform from values of peak voltage and period
T10 Test equipment encompassing:
operating principles of a CRO including block diagram of
functional areas
set up, calibration and use of an
oscilloscope to measure d.c and a.c. voltages and frequency
measurement of the instantaneous, peak,
peaktopeak values and the period of sinusoidal and other common waveforms
provided by a signal generator
calibration and limitation of CRO probes
use of signal generator as a voltage source
T11 Phase relationships in a.c. circuits encompassing:
phasor representation of graphical
waveforms
‘inphase’, ‘outofphase’, ‘phase
angle’, ‘lead’, and ‘lag’
convention for representing voltage,
current and the reference quantity in a phasor diagram
phasor diagrams to show the
relationship between two or more a.c. values of voltage and/or current
T12 Singlesource resistive a.c. circuits of various frequencies
encompassing:
singlesource a.c. circuit and taking resistance, voltage and current
measurements
voltage, current, resistances or power
dissipated from measured or given values of any two of these quantities
T13 Inductance in a.c. circuits encompassing:
concept of inductance, selfinductance
and mutual inductance. (in terms of storage of magnetic energy)
factors affecting inductance and how
the unit of inductance is derived
value of induced voltage in a given circuit
how a series d.c. circuit containing resistance and inductance
behaves
‘inductive reactance’
inductive reactance of a given inductor
and show the relationship between inductive reactance and frequency
applying Ohm’s law to determine
voltage, current or inductive reactance in a purely inductive a.c. circuit
given any two of these quantities
examples of inductive components in
circuits and systems and describe their effect on the phase relationship
between voltage and current
T14 Capacitance in a.c. circuits encompassing:
capacitive reactance of a given
capacitor and the relationship between capacitive reactance and frequency
applying Ohm’s law to determine
voltage, current or capacitive reactance in a purely capacitive a.c. circuit
given any two of these quantities
examples of capacitive components in
electronic circuits and systems and describe their effect on the phase
relationship between voltage and current
T15 Impedance in a.c. circuits encompassing:
definition of ‘impedance’
impedance of series, parallel and
seriesparallel circuits and draw diagrams showing the relationship between
resistive, inductive and capacitive components
singlesource a.c. circuit with
resistance, voltage and current measurements
determination of the voltage, current
or impedance from measured or given values of any two of these quantities
using phasor diagrams to solve problems
and show the relationship between voltages and currents in a.c. circuits
Electrical Power Principle 
KS01EG006A Single and threephase transformers
Evidence shall show an understanding of single and three phase
transformers to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Transformer construction encompassing:
types of lamination style and core
construction used in singlephase, three phase, double wound, auto transformers
and instrument transformers.
identification of different winding styles/types used in
transformers.
methods used to insulate low and high voltage transformers.
construction of transformer tanks for distribution
transformers.
transformer auxiliary equipment.
(Bushings, surgediverters, tapchangers, hot oil & winding indicators,
breather, Buchholz relay and conservator).
function of transformer auxiliary equipment.
types of information stated on transformer nameplates.
application of transformers.
performing basic insulation resistance,
continuity and winding identification tests.
T2 Transformer operation encompassing:
principles of mutual induction of a transformer.
factors that determine the induced voltage in a transformer
winding.
determining the value of a transformers
secondary voltage and current given one winding’s electrical details and turns
ratio.
identification of voltage and current
components of a phasor diagram for a transformer on noload.
principles of power transferred from
the primary to secondary when a load is connected using a phasor diagram
neglecting impedance drops.
selecting transformers for specific application/s.
safety features specified in AS/NZS3000
with respect to transformers and isolating transformers.
T3 Transformer losses, efficiency and cooling encompassing:
power losses which occur in a transformer.
tests which allow the power losses of a transformer to be
determine.
determination of transformer losses and efficiency using test
results.
relationship between transformer cooling and rating.
methods used for natural and forced cooling of transformers.
properties of transformer oil.
tests conducted on transformer oil.
T4 Transformer voltage regulation and percent impedance encompassing:
voltage regulation as applicable to a
transformer.
reasons for voltage variation in the output of a transformer.
determine the voltage regulation of a
transformer from voltage and percentage impedance values.
percentage impedance as applied to transformers.
determine the percent impedance by
using test results.
determine percent impedance of a transformer by calculation.
T5 Parallel operation of transformers and transformer auxiliary
equipment encompassing:
determine polarity markings for an
unidentified single phase double wound transformer.
need for parallel operation of transformers.
conditions/restrictions required before
two transformers can be connected in parallel.
connecting transformers in parallel to
supply a single load (loading on transformers operating in parallel).
the consequences/effect of an incorrect connection.
T6 Autotransformers and instrument transformers encompassing:
identification of autotransformers,
voltage transformers and current transformers from their winding diagrams.
determining voltage and current in the
windings of an autotransformer by calculation.
advantages and disadvantages of an
autotransformer.
AS/NZS3000 requirements with respect to transformers.
construction of voltage transformers.
ratings of voltage transformers.
construction of current transformers.
ratings of current transformers.
precautionary measures taken to connect and disconnect
instrument transformers.
connection diagrams for instrument transformers.
applications for autotransformers and
instrument transformers.
Basic Analogue & Digital Electronics 
Part 1 Analogue
This competency standard unit covers developing engineering solutions to
solve problems with analogue electronics. It encompasses working safely, apply
extensive knowledge of analogue electronics circuit and device operation and
their application, gathering and analysing data, applying problem solving
techniques, developing and documenting solutions and alternatives.
Note.
Typical analogue electronic problems are those encountered in meeting
performance requirements and compliance standards, revising analogue
electronics operating parameters and dealing with analogue electronic
malfunctions
KS01EH145A Analogue electronic circuits and
systems
Evidence shall show an understanding of analogue electronic circuits,
applying safe working practices and relevant Standards, Codes and Regulations
to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
Singlestage analogue electronics
T1. Understanding of differential amplifiers using discrete components
(transistors) of suitable characteristics to meet system objective
differential gain, common mode
rejection ratio and the required CMRR
variable gain input stage
T2. Operational amplifier circuits
use of d.c. offset
operation of singlesupply inverting
and noninverting amplifiers employing DC offset bias at the input and blocking
capacitors
operation of a high input resistance unity gain
areas of use for singlesupply
amplifiers.
T3. Comparator circuits (open loop, limited swing and hysteresis) using
operational amplifiers:
ideal opamp comparator
typical uses of the comparator.
comparators with limited (i) negative swing and (ii) both
positive negative swing
hysteresis comparator with positive
resistor divider feedback and calculate the input switching voltages.
desirable properties of an operational
amplifier for use as comparator and the characteristics of comparator op amps.
T4. Amplifiers with given piecewise linear transfer characteristics
T5. Operation and building precision of halfwave and fullwave
rectifiers
precision twodiode halfwave and
fullwave rectifier
typical applications of precision rectifiers.
T6. Oscillators
Operation of oscillators
Purpose of oscillators
Conditions for sustained oscillation
Operation of phase shift oscillators
The operation and characteristics of a Colpitts oscillator
Conditions that cause instability in
amplifier circuits
Advanced power amplifiers
Analysing the performance of power amplifiers
Minimum power, voltage and current rating of an output
transistor.
Aspects of heat transfer related to heat sinking.
Common forms of distortion encountered
in power amplifiers. (eg. Total harmonic distortion)
Techniques for overcoming common forms of distortion.
T9. (is the number correct?)Classes of power amplifiers and indicate
typical maximum efficiencies for each class
conduction, angle, output power and
efficiency of a power amp.
typical and/or maximum efficiencies of each class of power Amp.
d.c and/or a.c load line,
output power and efficiency of a large signal amplifier
T10. Operation of each class and type of power amplifier circuit
load line operation.
Class A – direct, RC, transformer
coupled. Class B – Complementary symmetry, drivers, single supply/duel supply.
Class C and Class D.
measure the characteristics of a fully integrated operational
power Amplifiers.
T11. Active filters
frequency response of lowpass,
highpass, lowQ bandpass, highQ bandpass, notch and allpass filters and
define passband, stopband and rate of rolloff.
main features in the amplitude and
phase plots of Butterworth, Chebyshev, CauerElliptic and Bessel filter
responses.
pros and cons of active and passive filters.
nonunity gain SallenKey lowpass
filter.
Types of active filters available in IC
form  Variable filter, Switched Capacitor Filters and digital (sampled data)
filters.
LowQ (i.e. cascade of lowpass and
highpass) and/or narrow bandpass filters
Part 2 Digital
This unit covers determining correct operation of digital subsystems.
It encompasses working safely, problem solving procedures, including the use of
voltage, current and resistance measuring devices, providing solutions derived
from measurements and calculations to predictable problems in digital
components circuits.
KS01EH112A Digital subsystem
Evidence shall show an understanding of digital subsystem
troubleshooting, applying safe working practices and relevant Standards, Codes
and Regulations to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1. Analogue and digital signals
Comparison between analogue and digital signals
Observing digital and analogue
waveforms
T2. Numbering systems
The binary number system
The hexadecimal number system
Binary addition and subtraction
T3. Numbering systems  conversions
Conversion between numbering systems
Binary Coded Decimal (BCD)
Gray code
The American Standard Code for
Information Interchange (ASCII)
Unicode
T4. Combinational logic circuits
Precautions when handling electronic devices due to
electrostatic discharge (ESD)
Truth tables
Basic operation and characteristics of logic gates
Logic probes
· Verification of operation of logic circuits
T5. Digital displays
Seven segment LED displays
Drive requirements
Current limiting
Multiplexed displays
Seven segment Decoders
Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)
Emerging display technologies
Verification of seven segment display
circuit
Interfacing with logic circuits
T6. Digital subsystem building blocks
Encoders and Decoders
Multiplexers and Demultiplexers
Timing diagrams
Flip flops, Latches and registers
Ripple counters
MOD counters
Synchronous counters Multivibrators
Clocks
Verification and operation (eg. PLDs, ICs)
T7. Digital fault finding
General fault finding principles
Common digital faults
Digital test equipment
Digital test equipment (eg. Logic probes, Digital
Oscilloscopes, digital trainers)
T8. Logic families and specifications
Input and output voltage characteristics
Comparison of logic families
Unit load
Noise margin
Interfacing different logic families
Tristate logic devices
Overview and applications of A/D converter and D/A converter
Process Control System 
This unit covers solving problems in industrial control systems. The
unit encompasses safe working practices, interpreting process and circuit
diagrams, applying knowledge of industry controls to problem solving
techniques, safety and functional testing and completing the necessary
documentation.
Note.
Typical basic industrial control system problems are those encountered
in meeting performance requirements and compliance standards, revising control
operating parameters and dealing with control malfunctions.
KS01EI120A 
Industrial control systems 

Evidence shall show an understanding of
industrial control systems to an extent indicated by the following aspects: 

Control amplifiers encompassing: Introduction Amplifier Operation Operational Amplifiers Operational
Amplifier Configurations 

Industrial transducers encompassing: Introduction SI Units Forms of Energy Transducer
Terminology Temperature Measurement Force Measurement Speed Measurement 

SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE 

Positional Measurement 

Industrial final control elements encompassing: Introduction Electromagnetic Devices Valves Solid State Switching Devices 

Industrial control systems encompassing: Automatic Control Open Loop Control Closed Loop Control Control System Terminology Control System Evaluation Two Position Control Proportional Control (P) Proportional + Integral Control (P+I) Proportional + Derivative Control (P+D) Proportional + Integral + Derivative
Control (P+I+D) 

Industrial control loops and control signals
encompassing: Introduction Control Loops Converters (D to A and A to D) Multiplexing 

Solar Electrical System 


This unit covers providing known solutions to predictable problems in
photovoltaic energy apparatus and systems operated at ELV and LV. It
encompasses working safely, problem solving procedures, including the use of
basic voltage, current and resistance measuring devices, providing known
solutions to predictable circuit problems.
KS01EK125A 
Photovoltaic power systems 

Evidence shall show an understanding of
photovoltaic power systems to an extent indicated by the following aspects: 

T1 Daily irradiation encompassing: definition
of the terms: declination angle, reflectance, sunshine hours,
extraterrestrial irradiation, Latitude, direct and diffuse radiation, azimuth
and altitude angles, radiance, solar window, tilt angle, solstice, equinox units and symbols for irradiation and
irradiance interpretation of solar radiation data
tables and contour maps. measuring solar irradiance with a
solarimeter. 

how radiation varies throughout the year on the
surface of a fixed collector. determining, using field measurements
and a sun path diagram, the times and dates when a PV array will be shaded by
obstacles at a particular site. calculation of the daily average
irradiation on a horizontal plane given extraterrestrial irradiation,
location constants and sunshine hour data. calculation of the monthly mean daily
irradiation falling on a PV array for each month of the year, adjusted for
the effects of shading, using irradiance and irradiation data tables and a
sun path diagram and/or appropriate software. selection of an appropriate tilt angle
for fixed and seasonallyadjustable PV arrays at an given latitude 

T2 Photovoltaic modules encompassing: definition of the terms: cell, module,
array, monocrystalline, polycrystalline, amorphous, band gap energy, semiconductor
diagram of a basic crystalline silicon
PV cell, showing its physical structure, with at least five major features
labelled major steps in the production of PV
modules based on bulk silicon cells, in comparison with the production of thin
film PV modules. basic physical principles of PV cell
operation for the main types of commercially available PV modules. efficiency, spectral response, cost and
typical applications of the main types of commercially available PV modules. new photovoltaic technologies currently
being developed towards commercialisation, and their major features. mechanical and electrical features
necessary for the long life of a PV module under a wide range of operating
conditions. 

T3 Module characteristics encompassing: definition of the terms: IV curve, fill
factor, operating point, maximum power point (MPP), cell temperature
coefficient, nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT), current, voltage and
power output coefficient. equivalent circuit for a PV cell,
labelling each of the elements and the polarity of the terminals. family of IV curves for a PV module,
labelling major points and showing the effects of variation in irradiance and
variation in cell temperature. 

jor ratings of a PV module from manufacturer’s
information or nameplate data. determination of the operating point of
a PV module with a resistive load, a constant voltage source or any other
load with known IV characteristics, using the load line method. configuration of a typical PV array,
including the function, placement and ratings of blocking and bypass diodes. the effect of partial shading of a PV
module or array, the impact of bypass diodes and the significance of their
configuration on output current in typical operating conditions. calculation of the power at MPP, and the
power under typical battery charging conditions, of a PV module, given
irradiance and ambient air temperature. calculation of the daily energy output
of a PV array in accordance with AS 4509.2, and by using "rule of
thumb" derating factors. the scope and content of Australian or
international standards relevant to the performance of PV modules. the electrical characteristics of a PV
module according to relevant Australian or International standards, using an
outdoor test method. 

Electrical Energy Supply System 


2.6.21
a) Generation
primary energy sources
power stations
power station output
acts and legislation relating
to generation
renewable energy sources and
techniques
b) Transmission
system requirements
principal components of a power
system
voltage levels
grid systems
acts/legislation relating to
transmission
future trends
c) Distribution
high voltage distribution
systems
medium/low voltage distribution
systems
radial feeders
parallel feeders
ring main feeders
acts/legislation relating to
distribution
d) Substations
purpose
location
layout
e) Overhead and underground
systems
relative merits
applications
planning
installation
f) Power distribution system
electrical characteristics
transmission and distribution
systems
inductance, capacitance and
resistance
g) Voltage problems in a power
distribution system
low voltage
unbalanced voltages
voltage rises
h) Voltage regulation
autotransformers with OLTC
transformers with OLTC
static capacitors
load control
i) Control of OLTC
regulation relays
control circuits
line drop compensation
j) Power distribution system
faults
type/classification of fault
typical causes/effects of faults
threephase symmetrical fault
levels
fault level limitation
k) Voltage surges in a power
distribution system
lightning surges
switching surges
typical surge levels
surge impedance, typical values
significance of the system
surge impedance.
l) Metering and metered
quantities
purpose
energy
maximum demand
accuracy classes for metering
systems
m) Energy and demand meters
construction
operation
adjustments
testing
n) Metering circuits
direct metering
instrument transformer metering
o) Electronic metering systems
and recording meters
types
applications
connections
p) Load control
purpose
methods
.6.22.1
a) Protection fundamentals
encompassing:
purpose of protection
features of a protection scheme
b) Instrument transformers for
protection encompassing:
Operating principles
Applications of current
transformers
Applications of voltage
transformers
c) Feeder protection
encompassing:
fuse protection
overcurrent & earth fault
sensitive earth fault
unit schemes
distance protection
trip/close sequences for
feeders
recloser/sectionaliser systems
d) Transformer protection
encompassing:
overheating protection
overcurrent protection
restricted earth fault
protection
differential protection
oil and gas devices
e) Busbar protection
encompassing:
types of fault
requirements of busbar
protection
system protection
frameearth protection
f) Surge protection
encompassing:
voltage surges (revision)
surge diverters
arcing horns
Electrical Risk Assessment 
This unit covers the mandatory requirements of persons in a supervisory
role to implement and monitor an organisation’s occupational health and safety
policies, procedures and programs. It encompasses understanding an
organisation’s OHS obligations, providing safety information to staff,
implementing and monitoring participative arrangements, safety procedures and
training and maintaining safety records.
KS01EE117A Energy sector Occupational Health and
Safety, supervisory responsibilities
Evidence shall show an understanding of OHS enterprise responsibilities
to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Provisions of relevant occupational health and safety legislation
T2 Principles and practice of effective occupational health and safety
management
T3 Workplace hazards, range and selection of control measures
T4 Organisational health and safety management systems and policies and
procedures needed for legislative compliance
T5 Impact of characteristics and composition of the workforce on occupational
health and safety management
T6 Relevance of occupational health and safety management to other
organisational management policies, procedures and systems.
T7 Analysis of entire work environment and judge occupational health and
safety interventions
T8 Analysis of relevant workplace data
T9 Ability to assess resources needed for risk control
Electrical Contracting & Specification 
This unit covers developing requirement to be incorporated into the
writing of specifications for electrical engineering projects. It encompasses
determining the safety requirements to be met, establishing client
expectations, ensuring cost effective solutions are pursued and documenting
design and technical requirements.
KS01EE071B Electrical engineering specification
development
Evidence shall show an understanding of electrical engineering
specification writing to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Electrical engineering specifications encompassing:
Purpose and nature of specification
Performance based specifications
Prescriptive specifications
Acceptable evidence of compliance
Additional service required with the supply of equipment
T2 Dealing with suppliers and manufacturer’s encompassing:
Documenting specification
Customer/client relations encompassing:
Importance of customer/client relations
Interpersonal skills that enhance customer/client
Dispute resolution
Customer/client relations strategies
T3 Using basic computers functions encompassing:
Starting up
Selecting application
Entering information
Saving
Printing
T4 Research skills encompassing:
Terminology  Terminology used in a
research workplace; Terminology used in researchspecific literature and the
like.
Theory – why conduct research  The
history of research; past research successes; past research failures; Research
Protocols; Research practices and the like.
The research environment  The research
work environment; Standard research practices; Industrial, legal, ethical,
political and market environment considerations; Legislation and regulation;
Contractual obligations of all parties
and the like.
Planning to conduct research  Concept
development and/or research brief analysis; Research objectives; Research deliverables;
Research project plan; Literature reviews; Methodology development, including;
Experimental design, Technology selection, Information Management system
selection and the like
Clients  identifying client viewpoints
and stake in project; Identifying client requirements and parameters;
Determining research budgets, timelines, milestones and quality attributes with
clients.
Research, Development and
Commercialisation  Research and Development goals versus Commercialisation
goals and realities; Research and Development to inspire a commercialisation
process
Electronics Power Control Device 
This unit covers solving problems with electronic aspects of single
phase power control devices and circuits. The unit encompasses safe working
practices, interpreting diagrams, applying knowledge of electronic power
control devices and their application, using effective problem solving
techniques, safety and functional testing and reporting work activities and
outcomes.
Note.
Typical single phase electronic power control problems are those
encountered in meeting performance requirements and compliance standards,
revising control operating parameters and dealing with control malfunctions.
KS01EI148A 
Single phase electronic power control circuit 


Evidence shall show an understanding of single
phase electronic power control circuit to an extent indicated by the
following aspects: 


Introduction to Power Control Advantages and benefits of power control
Need
for power control and typical applications Power control methods Types of solid state switches Block diagram of a power converter Power control terminology 


Modes of operation. 


Single Phase Power Rectifiers Single Phase Rectifier Circuit
Configurations Resistive/Inductive Loads Output Voltages/Waveforms Ripple Voltage/Frequency Peak Reverse Voltages Free Wheeling Diodes 


Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs) Construction and Symbol Basic Operating Principles Characteristics Gate Requirements Commutation Electrical Ratings Testing SCRs Applications. 


Triacs and Gate Turn Off (GTO) Thyristors Triac Construction and Symbol Triac Basic Operating Principles Triac Characteristics Triac Triggering Modes Triac Electrical Ratings Triac Testing GTO Construction and Symbol GTO Basic Operating Principles GTO Characteristics GTO Electrical Ratings Applications for Triac and GTOs 


Power Transistors (BJTs) BJT Construction and Symbol BJT Basic Operating Principles BJT Characteristics BJT Electrical Ratings BJT Testing Applications for BJTs 


Power Field Effect Transistors (FET) Types of FETs used for power control Power FETs Construction and Symbol FET Basic Operating Principles and Characteristics
IGBT Basic Operating Principles and
Characteristics Power FET Electrical Ratings 


Power FET Testing Applications for Power FETs 


Triggering Devices Diac: construction and symbol operating principles breakover voltage. Unijunction transistors (UJTs) construction and symbol operating principles intrinsic standoff ratio and peak point
voltage 


Programmable Unijunction Transistors (PUTs) construction and symbol operating principles programmable standoff ratio peak point voltage 


Triggering Circuits RC Time Constant Circuits Diac Trigger Circuit Operation UJT Relaxation Oscillator Circuit
Operation PUT Relaxation Oscillator Circuit 


Half Wave Controlled Rectification 


Phase shift control Controlled rectifiers Controlled rectifier power output
control Single Phase HalfWave Controlled
Rectifier Circuit configuration circuit operation waveforms load voltage applications and limitations Problems Associated with Phase Shift
Control 


Full Wave Controlled Bridge Rectification Single phase fullwave controlled bridge
rectifier circuit Output voltage Output waveforms Applications and limitations Advantages and disadvantages 


Fully Controlled Bridge Rectification Single phase fully controlled rectifier
bridge circuit Output voltage Output waveforms Applications and limitations Advantages and disadvantages 


SinglePhase a.c. Voltage Control Phase control of a.c. power Circuit configurations  half and full
control circuits Triggering circuits Circuit performance and operation on
resistive and inductive loads Output voltage and waveform,
determination of output voltage using circuit characteristics Range of control with inductive loads Triggering problems associated with
inductive loads. Applications and limitations 


Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) Operating principles Circuit configuration – including
trigger circuits 


Circuit operation and waveforms – resistive loads
only Relationship between load power and
conduction time Solid state relays; types and ratings Applications and limitations 


Fault Finding of Power Control Circuits Fault finding procedures Typical faults – power and trigger
circuits Characteristics displayed by common
faults Comparison of test data with expected
data (voltage/current waveforms) Location and replacement of faulty
components 


Engineering Mathematics 

This unit covers the application of computational processes to solve
engineering problems. It encompasses working safely, applying problem solving
techniques, using a range of mathematical processes, providing solutions to
electrical/electronics engineering problems and justifying such solutions.
Note. Typical engineering problems are those encountered in meeting
requirements in a design brief, meeting performance requirements and compliance
standards, revising systems operating parameters and dealing with system
malfunctions
KS01EE126A Electrotechnology engineering maths
Evidence shall show an understanding of electrotechnology engineering
maths to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Rational, irrational numbers and basic algebra
simplification of expressions involving square roots and cube
roots
scientific and engineering notation
evaluation of expressions using a
calculator
convert units of physical quantities using unity brackets
substitute given values into formulae to find physical
quantities
manipulate algebraic expressions using
mathematical operations in their correct order, the laws of indices, expansion
of brackets and collecting like terms
T2 Algebraic manipulation
Factorise algebraic expressions using common factors
Factorise quadratic expressions using trial and error on the
factors of the coefficients
Simplify algebraic fractions using
common denominators and cancelling
Solve simple one variable equations including algebraic
fractions
Find the quotient and remainder given a linear divisor.
Transpose formulae to find a required variable.
T3 Laws of indices
Conversion between decimal notation,
scientific notation and engineering notation
Laws of indices: positive /negative
values, multiplication/division, fractional values, index equals zero
Logarithmic laws: multiply/divide
solution of exponential equations using
logarithms, substitution and solution of relevant formulae involving exponents
or logarithms
Graphs of exponential functions, 10x
and ex and the inverses log10(x) and loge(x) functions on loglinear graphs
Convert numbers into scientific and engineering notation using
the laws of indices
Manipulate and simplify arithmetic and
algebraic expressions using the laws of indices and logarithms
Express logarithms as indices.
Perform logarithmic operations.
Determine logarithms and antilogarithms to base 10, using a
scientific calculator.
Determine logarithms and antilogarithms
to base e, using a scientific calculator.
Convert logarithmic values from base 10 to base e and vice
versa.
Sketch given functions on loglinear
graphs
T4 Estimations, errors and approximations
Errors in measurement
Maximum probable error
Show awareness of errors in measurement
and of giving results in appropriate number of significant figures
Use estimations and approximations to check the reasonableness
of results.
T5 Plane figures – triangles and basic trigonometry
Angles in a triangle
Isosceles and equilateral triangles
Congruent triangles
Similar triangles
Pythagoras' theorem
Area of triangles
Basic trigonometry functions
Degrees, radians
The ratios: sin, cos, tan, cosec, sec, cot.
Inverse trig functions
Sine and cosine rules
T6 Plane figures  quadrilaterals and circles
Types and properties of quadrilaterals
Areas and perimeters of regular quadrilaterals
Lengths of arcs
Angles in a circle  degrees
Angles in a circle  radians
Lengths of chord segments
Tangents to circles
Circumference and area of circles
Names and characteristics of common polygons
T7 Graphs of Trigonometric functions
Graph trigonometric functions and solve trigonometric
equations.
Simplify trigonometric expressions using trigonometric
identities
Convert angular measure in degrees to
radians and vice versa
Graph trigonometric functions including graphs of y = sin x and
y = cos x
Using vocational applications of
current or voltage as a function of time, consider changes in amplitude,
consider changes in frequency.
Examine relationships of frequency, period and angular
velocity.
Sketch graphs of the form f(t) = a sin
φt and f(t) = a cos φt, where a is the peak voltage or current, and
φ is the angular velocity
Solve graphically equations of the form
f(t) = a sin φt and f(t) = a cos φt
Show a
positive or negative angle on the unit circle.
· Use symmetry
properties to find trigonometric ratios for angles greater than đ/2.
· Solve simple
vocational problems relating period, frequency and angular velocity.
T8 Graphs of linear functions
The number plane
Gradient and x and y intercepts of a straight line
Equation of a straight line length and
midpoint of a straight line segment
Function notation
T9 Simultaneous equations
Graphical solutions
Substitution
Elimination
Solve 2 linear simultaneous equations
both algebraically and graphically.
T10 Matrices
Perform the basic operations on matrices up to 3 x 3
Manipulate matrix equations and expressions
Recognise inverse and identity matrices
up to 3 x 3 and use to solve systems of linear equations.
Find determinants up to 3 x 3 and use to solve systems of
linear equations.
Solve problems involving more than two simultaneous equations.
State the limitations of graphical methods of solution.
Distinguish between a matrix and an array.
Describe the null, diagonal and unit
matrix
Describe and identify a
singular/nonsingular matrix
T11 Quadratic functions
Graphs of quadratic functions
represented by parabolas and the significance of the leading coefficient.
Graph quadratic functions and solve
quadratic equations.
Sketch and interpret the graphs of
quadratic functions showing the significance of the leading coefficient and the
zeros
Solve quadratic equations by factoring or using quadratic
formula
Solve simultaneously linear and
quadratic equations algebraically and geometrically
Interpret verbally formulated problems
involving quadratic and linear equations and solve.
T12 Exponential and logarithmic functions
Transform nonlinear functions
(including exponential) to linear forms and plot data.
Draw curves of best fit, interpolate
data and estimate constants in suggested relationships.
Interpret
verbally formulated problems involving growth and decay, and solve.
· Graph exponential and logarithmic functions and
solve exponential and logarithmic equations.
Sketch the graphs of simple exponential
and logarithmic functions showing behaviour for large and small values
T13 Vectors and Phasors
The vector as an expression of magnitude and direction
The vector sum of x and y values in
terms of magnitude and direction
Rectangular components of vectors in the form x = r cos θ
and y = r sin θ
Rectangularpolar and polarrectangular
conversion
Vector addition and subtraction
Express rectangular components of vectors in the form x = r cos
θ and y = r sin θ
T14 Complex numbers
Definitions and notation of complex numbers
Complex numbers as vectors on an Argand diagram
laws of complex numbers and apply the laws in suitable
calculations.
Plot complex numbers on the Argand plane.
Express vectors as complex numbers and
perform suitable calculations.
Calculate the conjugate of a complex number.
Using a calculator for rectangularpolar
and polarrectangular conversions.
Electrical Circuits 
This unit covers determining correct operation of complex multiple path
circuits and providing engineering solutions as they apply to various branches
of electrotechnology work functions. It encompasses working safely, problem
solving procedures, including using electrical measuring devices, applying
appropriate circuit theorems and providing solutions derived from measurements
and calculations and justification for such solutions.
KS01EE125A Circuit analysis
Evidence shall show an understanding of circuit analysis to an extent
indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Voltage/Current Sources and Kirchhoff’s Law for d.c. Linear Circuits
encompassing:
calculating the effect of the internal
resistance on terminal voltage and current delivered for practical voltage
sources and current sources
calculating current and voltage in any
d.c. network of up to two loops and three sources.
Kirchhoff’s Law using a circuit simulation program.
function and operation of an electronics circuit simulation
program.
using electronics circuit simulation program.
T2 Superposition Principles for d.c. Linear Circuits encompassing:
d.c. networks (two loops, three sources)
using simulation programs
calculating current and voltage in any d.c. network of up to
two loops and three sources.
Superposition theorem using a circuit simulation program.
T3 Mesh and Nodal Analysis for d.c. Linear Circuits encompassing:
writing mesh equations for d.c. networks containing up to three
loops.
writing Nodal equations for d.c. networks containing up to
three nodes.
using mesh analysis to find currents in
d.c. networks of up to two loops.
using nodal analysis to find node
voltage and branch currents in d.c. networks of up to two nodes using a circuit
simulation program to confirm the results of Mesh analysis or Nodal analysis of
d.c. networks.
T4 Thévenin’s principles for d.c. Linear Circuits encompassing:
calculating the effect of the internal
resistance on terminal voltage and current delivered for practical voltage
sources and current sources.
calculating the Thévenin equivalent
voltage and resistance for d.c. networks and determining the load current,
voltage and power.
converting the Thévenin equivalent circuit to a Norton
equivalent circuit and vice versa.
verifying the equivalence of Thévenin equivalent circuits by
measurement.
T5 Norton’s principles for d.c. linear circuits encompassing:
calculating the effect of the internal
resistance on terminal voltage and current delivered for practical voltage
sources and current sources.
calculating the Norton equivalent
current and resistance for d.c. networks and determining the load current,
voltage and power.
converting the Thévenin equivalent circuit to a Norton
equivalent circuit and vice versa.
verifying the equivalence of Norton equivalent circuits by
measurement.
T6 Phasors encompassing:
time domain and frequency domain
frequency, angular frequency and units
of measurement
defining rms and convert between time domain and rms phasor
values for a sine wave.
converting between angular frequency and frequency.
using a calculator to convert between polar and rectangular
forms of phasor.
representing a.c. voltages on a phasor diagram.
T7 Complex Impedance encompassing:
defining impedance, resistance and reactance.
defining admittance, conductance and susceptance.
converting between conductance to resistance.
converting between susceptance and
reactance.
converting between impedance and admittance.
sketching impedance and admittance diagrams.
calculating twocomponent series
equivalent circuits and twocomponent parallel equivalent circuits and convert
between these forms.
T8 Series and parallel a.c. linear circuits encompassing:
Kirchhoff’s Laws
series equivalent impedance
parallel equivalent impedance
voltage divider and current divider rules
calculating and measuring voltage and
currents in a series a.c .circuit and draw the phasor diagram.
calculating
and measuring currents in a parallel a.c. circuit and draw the phasor diagram.
· calculating and measuring voltage and currents in a
series/parallel a.c. circuit and draw the phasor diagram.
T9 Superposition principles and Kirchoff’s Laws applied to a.c. linear
circuits encompassing:
calculating current and voltage in any a.c. network of up to
two loops and two sources.
using circuit simulation programs to demonstrate the
superposition theorem.
function and operation of an
electronics circuit simulation program.
entering given circuit specifications into an electronic
circuit program.
setting the circuit simulation program
operation parameters including input and output values, ranges and graduation.
producing hardcopies of the circuit and
analyse results.
T10 Mesh and Nodal analysis for a.c. linear circuits encompassing:
Mesh analysis
Node voltages and nodal analysis
matrix representation
method of determinants
writing mesh equations for a.c. networks containing up to three
loops.
writing nodal equations for a.c.
networks containing up to three nodes.
using mesh analysis to find currents in a.c. networks of up to
two loops.
using nodal analysis to find node
voltage and branch currents in a.c. networks of up to two nodes.
using a circuit simulation program to
confirm the results of mesh analysis or nodal analysis of a.c. networks.
T11 Thévenin and Norton theorems applied to a.c. linear circuits
encompassing:
calculating the effect of the internal
resistance on terminal voltage and current delivered for practical voltage
sources and current sources.
calculating the Thévenin equivalent
voltage and impedance for a.c. networks and determining the load current,
voltage and power.
calculating the Norton equivalent
current and impedance for a.c. networks and determining the load current,
voltage and power.
converting the Thévenin equivalent circuit to a Norton
equivalent circuit and vice versa.
verifying the equivalence of Thévenin and Norton equivalent
circuits by measurement.
T12 Stardelta conversions encompassing:
Star connections
Stardelta transformation formula
equations
selection of appropriate conversion
calculating the delta connected equivalent
of a star connected balanced a.c. or d.c. load and vice versa.
converting a complex
nonseries/parallel network to a series/parallel network by means
of stardelta or deltastar conversions.
verifying stardelta and deltastar
network conversions by measurements.
T13 Complex a.c. power and maximum power transfer theorem encompassing:
true power, reactive power and apparent
power
maximum power transfer
calculating real, reactive and apparent
power for series/parallel a.c. circuits and state the appropriate units of
measurement.
calculating the power factor of a.c. series/parallel circuits.
drawing power triangle for a given
circuit.
calculating the load value which would
consume maximum power and calculate this power for d.c. networks.
calculating the load value which would
consume maximum power in an a.c. network when the load is a pure resistance and
calculate the power.
calculating the load value which would
consume maximum power in an a.c. network when the load is an impedance of
variable resistance and reactance and calculate the power.
verifying load selection by measurement.
T14 Transients encompassing:
transients in RC and RL circuits
growth and decay
calculating voltage and currents in RC
series circuits using exponential equations.
calculating voltage and currents in RL
series circuits using exponential equations
Three Phase Power Circuits 
This unit covers determining correct operation of complex polyphase
power circuits and providing solutions as they apply to electrical power
engineering work functions. It encompasses working safely, problem solving
procedures, including using electrical measuring devices, applying appropriate
circuit theorems and providing solutions derived from measurements and
calculations and justification for such solutions.
KS01EG149A Polyphase power circuit analysis
Evidence shall show an understanding of polyphase power circuit analysis
to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Polyphase supply system encompassing:
advantage of three phase system compared to single phase
systems
double subscript notation
phase sequence
120 degree operator
given circuit component parameters, solve practically based
problems using:
equivalent circuits of transformers, lines and loads.
component values using rectangular and polar notation.
current divider and potential divider
rules using complex impedances.
The “per unit” values of voltage, current, VA and impedance to
a common VA base.
T2 Types of three phase system connections encompassing:
supply to balanced star, 3 and 4 wire loads
supply to delta connected loads
effects of phase reversal
representation of currents and voltages as complex phasors for 3 phase
and 3 phase and neutral quantities.
calculation the values of and draw
labeled phasor diagrams, not to scale, to represent complex values of current
and voltage for balanced and unbalanced loads for star and delta systems.
calculation of values of P, Q and S for balanced and unbalanced
systems.
draw and label single phase diagrams to
represent 1 phase of a complex 3 phase system.
represent unbalanced voltages or
currents as symmetrical components.
Phase to phase currents
Phase to neutral/earth currents.
T3 Balanced three phase loads encompassing:
calculations of balanced loads connected in star
calculations of balanced loads connected in delta
calculation of steady state values of
fault current for various configurations.
evaluation of the symmetrical component
impedances for the various distribution system components. Transformers
(earthed neutral case). Generators (high impedance earth)
calculation of fault currents using the
per unit approach.
calculation using the “worst case”
values based on transformer impedance only (ie., a short circuit fault)
estimation of peak values using accepted multipliers.
effects of the d.c. component on the
instantaneous magnitudes of fault currents in transformers and generators.
T4 Unbalanced three phase loads encompassing:
Star – 4 wire systems
Delta systems
Star – 3 wire systems
Star 4 wire with neutral impedance
T5 Power in threephase circuits encompassing:
summation of phase powers and power in
balanced loads
measurement of power in balanced loads
– 2 Wattmeter methods
T6 Reactive three phase power encompassing:
power triangle calculation
measurement of VAR
power factor correction
T7 Fault currents encompassing:
symmetrical components
positive, negative and zero sequence impedance
fault current breaking and letthrough energy capacities of circuit
breakers, fuses
importance of fault/arc impedance
calculation of fault currents 
phasetoearth faults
calculation of fault currents 
phasetophase faults
analysis of asymmetrical faults currents.
T8 Harmonics in three phase systems encompassing:
presence of triple in harmonics in 3 phase systems
effects of 3 phase harmonics for different star and delta
connections.
methods for reducing harmonics in three phase systems.
Engineering Physics 
This unit covers the law of physics and how they apply to solving
electrotechnology related problems. It encompasses working safely, knowledge of
measurements of physical phenomena, linear and angular motion, harmonic motion,
wave theory, optics, acoustics and heat capacity and transfer, use of
measurement techniques, solving physics related problems and documenting
justification for such solutions.
KS01EE082A Electrotechnology engineering physics
Evidence shall show an understanding of electro engineering physics to
an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Measurement encompassing
SI units in measurement of physical phenomena
Uncertainty and tolerance
T2 Linear motion
T3 Angular motion
T4 Simple harmonic motion and vibration
T5 Wave theory
Interference
Diffraction
T6 Electromagnetic waves and propagation
T7 Optics
Mirrors and lenses
Optical fibre
T8 Acoustics and ultrasonics
T9 Heat capacity and heat transfer
Fluid power
Electrical Power System 
2.6.22.6 
Electrical power distribution
systems diagnostic 
a) Distribution system overview
including:
regulatory conditions of supply
and utilisation
compliance with Australian
Standards.
reticulation system including
overhead/underground, urban/rural, HV customers and highrise building systems.
The effects of industrial customers
methods used to ensure
continuity of supply.
types of substations in current
use.
systems of distribution used,
(primary and secondary)
voltage levels, power factor,
waveform distortion and transient loading
supply quality
load curve profiles
(residential/industrial/commercial)
types of feeders
distribution systems (urban,
rural singlephase systems, SWER, spur, parallel and ring systems etc.)
b) Overhead lines and
installation
industry and safety regulations
overhead conductors
conductor material
current rating factors
(heating, voltage drops, power losses)
aerial bundled cables (HV and
LV)
covered conductors
Note: The characteristics of
lines and cables including the calculation of R, X and B for different
arrangements of conductor. Typical values for actual lines. Transposition.
Models based on line length. Voltage and line regulation
overhead line poles
types (wood, concrete and
steel)
installation of poles (tooling,
rake, life, labelling, sinking)
maintenance of poles – above
& below ground
pole strength and loads
crossarms
types and standard sizes
insulators
insulation types
types (pin, suspension or disc,
shackle)
creepage, necessary clearances
arcing horns, insulator
mounting
structure types
mechanical properties (working
strength, maximum tension, limiting size)
interpretation of stringing
charts
determination of sag (by
calculations or measurement and/or tension measurement)
sight and wave sagging, sag
correction
stays
components, anchorage
c) Use of design schedules
sample design problems
Note: Examples of common design
practice line, voltage, structure types used, line deviation, span sag,
crossarms, insulators and stays wind loading and line deviation loading basic
surveying
measurement of levels,
deviation angle and compass bearings
perform survey of short
distribution line extension of produce field notes
d) Underground cables
cable types, ratings, core
material, design considerations, cable dielectrics, insulating materials and
abbreviations, electric stress, cable volt drop and volt drop calculations,
cable termination, joints and installation.
induction and eddy currents
cable testing, cable fault
location
cable drawing
e) Voltage regulations of
feeders and associated equipment
terminology used: distribution
system, service line, customer‘s terminals, customer voltage, utilisation
voltage, base voltage, voltage variation and bandwidth
voltage limits and effects of
voltage variation
causes of variation:
inductance, capacitance and reactance of distribution lines, transformers
methods of voltage control:
offload, onload tap changers, voltage regulating relays, line drop
compensation, different types of voltage regulators
voltage profiles: principles,
effect on voltage profiles, limits of voltage, voltage drops due to LV mains
transformers, tapsettings feeder and service lines
determining volt drops for components
within the profile.
f) Control of voltage.
Conditions leading to voltage collapse and system disintegration. Effects on
the system of high/low volts. Voltage control devices including:
voltage regulators applied to
generators and synchronous phase modifiers
electromagnetic voltage
regulators
series and parallel capacitors
OLTC transformers and static
Var compensations (SVCs)
g) Range of devices covered by
SVCs including:
saturated reactor compensations
(SRs)
thyristor controlled reactor compensators
(TCRs)
combined TCR/TSCs and
production of waveform
distorting harmonics and control devices
h) Importance of the location
in the system of voltage control devices
i) Types of communication
systems including telephone, power line carrier, dedicated cable, microwave
links and fibreoptics. Quantities and signals to be communicated. Advantages
and disadvantages of the various systems. Equipment requirements
j) Transient overvoltages in
power systems. Switching and lightning overvoltages and their
effect on different plant
items. Transient overvoltage control and reduction using surge diverters,
shield wires and CB are control. Insulation systems, insulation coordination,
insulation grading in plant items, bushings and capacitor bushings
k) The principles of operation,
voltage and current range, breaking capacity and field of use of the following
types of circuit breakers.
bulk oil, small oil volume, air
break, vacuum and SF6 (double pressure and puffer types).
l) The types of isolators in
use. Examples include duoroll, blade and scissor type.
m) Circuit breaker auxiliary
systems including:
d.c. systems including battery
types, charging and protection systems and earth fault detection systems
SF6 conditioning, storage and handling system
AC Machines 

Synchronous Machines
This unit covers developing engineering solutions to resolve problems
with synchronous machines and their controls. It encompasses working safely,
apply extensive knowledge of synchronous machine operation, construction and
their application, gathering and analysing data, applying problem solving
techniques, developing and documenting solutions and alternatives
KS01EG143A Synchronous machine diagnostics
Evidence shall show an understanding of developing engineering solutions
for synchronous machine problems to an extent indicated by the following
aspects:
T1 a.c. generators – construction, types and cooling encompassing:
construction of stator and rotor windings
rotor construction (cylindrical and salient pole)
advantages of rotating field construction
excitation methods
cooling methods
prime movers
T2 a.c. generators – operating principles and characteristics
encompassing:
a.c. generator equivalent circuits
(synchronous reactance and resistance components)
tests – open circuit, short circuit,
stator impedance
voltage regulation, island generator’s terminal voltage load
power factor
determination of excitation voltage and
load angle
T3 Synchronising a.c. generators encompassing:
conditions for synchronising (infinite bus)
methods for synchronising (lamp methods, synchroscope)
alternator load sharing, parallel operation
T4 a.c. generators power, torque and efficiency encompassing:
power input, input torque, speed
power losses
output power, load power factor, rotor angle, pu power
efficiency
performance chart interpretation
T5 Voltage regulation (AVR) encompassing:
need for AVR’s
features of AVR’s
effects of rotor inductance
connections of AVRs
operation of AVRs
T6 a.c. generator operational stability encompassing:
power output, VAR effects, rotor angle, excitation
control of VAR (OLTC transformers)
voltage dependant nature of stability
critical clearance angle of a.c. generator
stability limits
T7 a.c. generator protection encompassing:
restricted, unrestricted primary, back up and duplicated
protection
overcurrent, short circuit,
differential, reverse power, load unbalance, rotor overload, lossoffield,
rotor earth fault, station earth fault, under frequency protection
external fault protection
T8 Induction generator encompassing:
types operating principles, characteristics
excitation methods
losses and efficiency
synchronising and paralleling
T9 Three phase synchronous motors encompassing:
construction – rotor, stator, windings
excitation methods
operating principles (equivalent circuits, synchronous
impedance)
hunting and stability limits
power factor correction
paralleling and synchronisation techniques
starting methods
braking methods
Part 2 Induction Machines
This unit covers developing engineering solutions to resolve problems
with induction machines and their controls. It encompasses working safely;
apply extensive knowledge of induction machine operation and construction and
their application, gathering and analysing data, applying problem solving
techniques, developing and documenting solutions and alternatives.
Note.
Typical motor problems are those encountered in meeting performance
requirements and compliance standards, revising a machine operating parameters
and dealing with machine malfunctions.
KS01EG145A Induction machines diagnostics
Evidence shall show an understanding of developing engineering solutions
for induction motor problems to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Operating principles of polyphase induction motors encompassing:
rotating magnetic field torque slip
MMF relationships
Leakage fluxes
T2 Construction of polyphase induction motors encompassing:
squirrel cage motors
slipring motors
construction considerations in minimisation of tooth locking
T3 Speedtorque relationships in induction motors encompassing:
maximum torque
torque – slip relationships
squirrel cage rotor types
power flow in the motors
power distribution
torque units
slip ring rotors
T4 Induction motor performance testing encompassing:
noload tests
locked rotor
tests
· development
of motor equivalent circuit from test results
· analysis of
motor performance using circle diagrams
T5 Induction motor starters encompassing:
starting requirements
type of starters
starting torque
starting dynamics
static friction
mechanical loads
starting duration
T6 Reduced voltage starting encompassing:
starting dynamics
change over conditions
starting duration
acceleration curves
T7 Speed control of induction motors encompassing:
constant torque, constant power concepts
torquefluxvoltage relationships
rotor resistance control
stator impedance control
variable frequency control (e.g. PAM, PWM, Flux vector control)
T8 Braking of induction motors encompassing:
electrical braking systems (plugging,
d.c. dynamic, regenerative, capacitormagnetic)
mechanical braking systems (mechanical drum, demag, eddy
current)
T9 Motor protection encompassing:
overload
earth fault
phase failure
T10 Motor selection criteria and RMS rating
T11 Induction motor maintenance/repair encompassing:
routine maintenance schedules
type of repairs (mechanical, electrical)
T12 Single phase induction motors encompassing:
operating principles (especially RMF)
construction types
· speedtorque relationships
testing
DC Machine 
This unit covers developing engineering solutions to resolve problems
with d.c. machines and their controls. It encompasses working safely; apply
extensive knowledge of d.c machine operation and construction and their
application, gathering and analysing data, applying problem solving techniques,
developing and documenting solutions and alternatives.
Note.
Typical machine problems are those encountered in meeting performance
requirements and compliance standards, revising machine operating parameters
and dealing with machine malfunctions.
KS01EG144A Direct current machine diagnostics
Evidence shall show an understanding of developing engineering solutions
for d.c. machine problems to an extent indicated by the following aspects:
T1 Basic d.c. machine construction and operation encompassing:
General principles of operation
Applications of d.c. machines
Construction of d.c. machines
d.c. machine configurations; series,
shunt, compound long shunt and compound short shunt
Armature and field currents
Insulation
Ratings
Cooling paths
Bearings
General maintenance of d.c. machines
T2 Construction and use of lap and wave windings encompassing:
coils and elements
generated voltage equation for generator
generated voltage equation for motors
application of lap and wave windings
T3 Commutation process encompassing:
use of interpoles
loading of machines
brush shifting
brush selection
classes of brush grades
Note:
Examples include: natural graphite, hard carbon, electrographite,
metalgraphite, metalcarbon, “treated” grades
carbon brush contact characteristics
Note:
Examples include: specific resistance, thermal conductivity, density and
porosity, elastic properties, contact properties
carbon brush factors
Note:
Examples are: pressure, current, polarity, speed
brush construction
Note:
Examples are: dimensions, tolerances, preferred sizes, surfaces, edges,
bevels, flexible shunts, connection of flexible shunt to brush, insulation of
flexible connections
brush holders
Note:
Examples are: types, brush angles, trailing holders, reaction holders,
top bevel angles, reversible rotation, cantilever holders, effective arc of
contact, construction of brush holders, pressure mechanism
mounting of brush holders and brushes
Note:
Examples are: clearances, brush angle, brush arm spacing, alignment,
staggering, brush bedding, brush pressure
brush operation
Note:
Examples are: temperature rise, number and size of brushes, current
distribution etween brushes, slotting brushes, polarity effects, arc of
contact, materials for commutators, mica
selection of brush grades
Note:
Examples are: machine data, current density, commutator peripheral
speed, brush arc, pitch of segments, number of segments covered by brush,
cooling surface
T4 Armature reaction in d.c. machines encompassing:
effect of armature reaction on d.c.
machine characteristics
use of compensating winding
T5 d.c. generators encompassing:
relative advantages and disadvantages of the various dc
generator configurations
and their performance under various load conditions
voltage regulation as a percentage or
per unit value
operation in parallel
T6 d.c. motors encompassing:
relative advantages and disadvantages
of the various dc motor configurations and their performance under various load
conditions
shape of motor speed/torque curves
reversal of rotation
T7 Starting and protection of d.c. motors encompassing:
types of d.c. motor starters in use
d.c. motor protection
T8 Speed regulation and speed control of d.c. motors encompassing: